Adjusted Present Value (APV)

Adjusted Present Value (APV)

See Also:
Adjusted Present Value Example
Cost of Capital Funding
Arbitrage Pricing Theory
Capital Asset Pricing Model
Capital Budgeting Methods
Required Rate of Return

Adjusted Present Value Definition

Adjusted present value (APV), defined as the net present value of a project if financed solely by equity plus the present value of financing benefits, is another method for evaluating investments. It is very similar to NPV. The difference is that is uses the cost of equity as the discount rate rather than WACC. And APV includes tax shields such as those provided by deductible interests. APV analysis is effective for highly leveraged transactions.

Adjusted Present Value Explanation

The adjusted present value approach is very similar to the Discounted Cash Flow method of valuation. So similar, in fact, that they will yield approximately the same results if the financing structure of a company is consistent. The method is especially effective in any situation in which the tax implications of a deal heavily effect the outcome, such as with a leveraged buyout. When compared to the more common methods of valuation, the adjusted present value method is newly created.

When valuing your company, it’s important to identify the destroyers in your company. 

[button link=”” bg_color=”#eb6500″]Download The Top 10 Destroyers Of Value[/button]

Adjusted Present Value Formula

The formula for adjusted present value is:

NPV (of a venture financed solely with equity capital) + PV of financing

APV Calculation

In the adjusted preset value (APV) approach the value of the firm is estimated in following steps.
1. The first step is to estimate the value of a company with no leverage by calculating a NPV at the cost of equity as the discount rate.
2. The next step is to calculate the expected tax benefit from a given level of debt financing. These can be discounted either at the cost of debt or at a higher rate that reflects uncertainties about the tax effects. The NPV of the tax effects is then added to the base NPV.
3. The last step is to evaluate the effect of borrowing the amount on the probability that the firm will go bankrupt, and the expected cost of bankruptcy.
In the adjusted present value (APV) approach, the primary benefit of borrowing is a tax benefit and that the most significant cost of borrowing is the added risk of bankruptcy.
Investment = $500,000
Cash flow from equity = $25,000
Cost of equity = 20%
Cost of Debt = 7%
Interest on debt = 7%
Tax = 35%
Finance the deal half with equity and half with debt
NPV = -$500,000 + ($25,000 / 20%) = -$375,000
PV = (35% x $250,000 x 7%) / 7% = $87,500
-$375,000 + $87,500 = -$287,500 –> Bad Deal

APV Valuation vs Cost of Capital

In an APV valuation, obtain the value of a levered firm by adding the net effect of debt to the un-levered firm value.
In the cost of capital approach, the effects of leverage show up in the cost of capital, with the tax benefit incorporated in the after-tax cost of debt and the bankruptcy costs in both the levered beta and the pre-tax cost of debt.
These two approaches can get the identical results in theory. The first reason for the differences is that the models consider bankruptcy costs very differently, with the adjusted present value approach providing more flexibility in considering indirect bankruptcy costs whether or not it shows up in the pre-tax cost of debt. So the APV approach will yield a more conservative estimate of value. The second reason is that the APV approach considers the tax benefit from a dollar debt value, usually based upon existing debt. The cost of capital approach estimates the tax benefit from a debt ratio that may require the firm to borrow increasing amounts in the future. Download the free Top 10 Destroyers of Value whitepaper to learn how to maximize your value.
adjusted present value

[box]Strategic CFO Lab Member Extra

Access your Exit Strategy Execution Plan in SCFO Lab. This tool enables you to maximize potential value before you exit.

Click here to access your Execution Plan. Not a Lab Member?

Click here to learn more about SCFO Labs[/box]

adjusted present value


Mining the Balance Sheet for Working Capital

Mining the Balance Sheet for Working Capital Let’s face it… There has been significant liquidity in the marketplace over the past couple of years. Debt and equity capital has been relatively easy to find and commercial banks have been very willing participants as capital providers; however, many of the commercial banks have admitted that this robust marketplace

Read More »

Is Your Business Bankable?

Businesses call us for many reasons but here are two very common reasons why we get called… They are growing and want to strengthen the financial function. OR They are in financial distress and can’t find a way out. Why does a business need to be bankable? What does being bankable mean? In this blog,

Read More »

Alternative Forms of Financing

It happens all the time. Companies need capital, but they aren’t bankable. Banks or other financial institutions will not touch them because they are either too risky, not able to meet covenants, or it just doesn’t work out for some reason. So, where do those companies go? They need to look at alternative forms of

Read More »


Financial Leadership Workshop

MARCH 28TH-31ST 2022


Financial Leadership Workshop


September 12-15th 2022



Strategic CFO™ Financial Leadership Workshop
The Art Of The CFO®


September 12-15th 2022