Capitalization in Finance
In finance, capitalization in finance is the sum of a company’s debt and equity. It represents the capital invested in the company, including bonds and stocks.
Capitalization can also mean market capitalization. Market capitalization is the value of a company’s outstanding shares of stock. It also represents the value of the firm according to investors’ perceptions. It is equal to the number of shares outstanding multiplied by the share price.
Market Capitalization = Shares Outstanding x Share Price
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Capitalization in Accounting
In accounting, capitalization refers to recording costs as assets on the balance sheet instead of as expenses on the income statement. A company may record the purchase price of an asset, as well as the asset’s acquisition costs, such as transportation and setup, as assets on the balance sheet.
Capitalization in accounting also refers to transferring an off-balance-sheet operating lease onto the balance sheet and recording it as a capital lease. To do this, calculate the present value of the future operating lease payments and record the amount on the balance sheet as an asset with a corresponding liability.
Capitalization of Cost
For example, a manufacturing company may record the cost of raw materials, direct labor, and overhead as assets – where labor and overhead would be capitalized costs. The assets (including the capitalized costs) are then transferred to the income statement as costs of goods sold as the underlying assets are sold to customers. Capitalizing costs increases the value of total assets and equity on the balance sheet, as well as net income on the income statement.
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