Tag Archives | taxes

Standard Chart of Accounts

See Also:
Chart of Accounts (COA)
Problems in Chart of Accounts Design
Complex Number for SGA Expenses

Standard Chart of Accounts

In accounting, a standard chart of accounts is a numbered list of the accounts that comprise a company’s general ledger. Furthermore, the company chart of accounts is basically a filing system for categorizing all of a company’s accounts as well as classifying all transactions according to the accounts they affect. The standard chart of accounts list of categories may include the following:

The standard chart of accounts is also called the uniform chart of accounts. Use a chart of accounts template to prepare the basic chart of accounts for any subsidiary companies or related entities. By doing so, you make consolidation easier.

Organize in Numerical System

Furthermore, a standard chart of accounts is organized according to a numerical system. Thus, each major category will begin with a certain number, and then the sub-categories within that major category will all begin with the same number. If assets are classified by numbers starting with the digit 1, then cash accounts might be labeled 101, accounts receivable might be labeled 102, inventory might be labeled 103, and so on. Whereas, if liabilities accounts are classified by numbers starting with the digit 2, then accounts payable might be labeled 201, short-term debt might be labeled 202, and so on.


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Number of Accounts Needed

Depending on the size of the company, the chart of accounts may include either few dozen accounts or a few thousand accounts. Whereas, if a company is more sophisticated, then the chart of accounts can be either paper-based or computer-based. In conclusion, the standard chart of account is useful for analyzing past transactions and using historical data to forecast future trends.

You can use the following example of chart of accounts to set up the general ledger of most companies. In addition, you may customize your COA to your industry by adding to the Inventory, Revenue and Cost of Goods Sold sections to the sample chart of accounts.

SAMPLE CHART OF ACCOUNTS

Refer to the following sample chart of accounts. Each company’s chart of accounts may look slightly different. But if you are starting from scratch, then the following is great place to start.

1000 ASSETS

1010 CASH Operating Account
1020 CASH Debitors
1030 CASH Petty Cash

1200 RECEIVABLES

1210 A/REC Trade
1220 A/REC Trade Notes Receivable
1230 A/REC Installment Receivables
1240 A/REC Retainage Withheld
1290 A/REC Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts

1300 INVENTORIES

1310 INV – Reserved
1320 INV – Work-in-Progress
1330 INV – Finished Goods
1340 INV – Reserved
1350 INV – Unbilled Cost & Fees
1390 INV – Reserve for Obsolescence

1400 PREPAID EXPENSES & OTHER CURRENT ASSETS

1410 PREPAID – Insurance
1420 PREPAID – Real Estate Taxes
1430 PREPAID – Repairs & Maintenance
1440 PREPAID – Rent
1450 PREPAID – Deposits

1500 PROPERTY PLANT & EQUIPMENT

1510 PPE – Buildings
1520 PPE – Machinery & Equipment
1530 PPE – Vehicles
1540 PPE – Computer Equipment
1550 PPE – Furniture & Fixtures
1560 PPE – Leasehold Improvements

1600 ACCUMULATED DEPRECIATION & AMORTIZATION

1610 ACCUM DEPR Buildings
1620 ACCUM DEPR Machinery & Equipment
1630 ACCUM DEPR Vehicles
1640 ACCUM DEPR Computer Equipment
1650 ACCUM DEPR Furniture & Fixtures
1660 ACCUM DEPR Leasehold Improvements

1700 NON – CURRENT RECEIVABLES

1710 NCA – Notes Receivable
1720 NCA – Installment Receivables
1730 NCA – Retainage Withheld

1800 INTERCOMPANY RECEIVABLES

 

1900 OTHER NON-CURRENT ASSETS

1910 Organization Costs
1920 Patents & Licenses
1930 Intangible Assets – Capitalized Software Costs

2000 LIABILITIES

 

2100 PAYABLES

2110 A/P Trade
2120 A/P Accrued Accounts Payable
2130 A/P Retainage Withheld
2150 Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt
2160 Bank Notes Payable
2170 Construction Loans Payable

2200 ACCRUED COMPENSATION & RELATED ITEMS

2210 Accrued – Payroll
2220 Accrued – Commissions
2230 Accrued – FICA
2240 Accrued – Unemployment Taxes
2250 Accrued – Workmen’s Comp
2260 Accrued – Medical Benefits
2270 Accrued – 401 K Company Match
2275 W/H – FICA
2280 W/H – Medical Benefits
2285 W/H – 401 K Employee Contribution

2300 OTHER ACCRUED EXPENSES

2310 Accrued – Rent
2320 Accrued – Interest
2330 Accrued – Property Taxes
2340 Accrued – Warranty Expense

2500 ACCRUED TAXES

2510 Accrued – Federal Income Taxes
2520 Accrued – State Income Taxes
2530 Accrued – Franchise Taxes
2540 Deferred – FIT Current
2550 Deferred – State Income Taxes

2600 DEFERRED TAXES

2610 D/T – FIT – NON CURRENT
2620 D/T – SIT – NON CURRENT

2700 LONG-TERM DEBT

2710 LTD – Notes Payable
2720 LTD – Mortgages Payable
2730 LTD – Installment Notes Payable

2800 INTERCOMPANY PAYABLES

2900 OTHER NON CURRENT LIABILITIES

3000 OWNERS EQUITIES

3100 Common Stock
3200 Preferred Stock
3300 Paid in Capital
3400 Partners Capital
3500 Member Contributions
3900 Retained Earnings

4000 REVENUE

4010 REVENUE – PRODUCT 1
4020 REVENUE – PRODUCT 2
4030 REVENUE – PRODUCT 3
4040 REVENUE – PRODUCT 4
4600 Interest Income
4700 Other Income
4800 Finance Charge Income
4900 Sales Returns and Allowances
4950 Sales Discounts

5000 COST OF GOODS SOLD

5010 COGS – PRODUCT 1
5020 COGS – PRODUCT 2
5030 COGS – PRODUCT 3
5040 COGS – PRODUCT 4
5700 Freight
5800 Inventory Adjustments
5900 Purchase Returns and Allowances
5950 Reserved

6000 – 7000 OPERATING EXPENSES

6010 Advertising Expense
6050 Amortization Expense
6100 Auto Expense
6150 Bad Debt Expense
6200 Bank Charges
6250 Cash Over and Short
6300 Commission Expense
6350 Depreciation Expense
6400 Employee Benefit Program
6550 Freight Expense
6600 Gifts Expense
6650 Insurance – General
6700 Interest Expense
6750 Professional Fees
6800 License Expense
6850 Maintenance Expense
6900 Meals and Entertainment
6950 Office Expense
7000 Payroll Taxes
7050 Printing
7150 Postage
7200 Rent
7250 Repairs Expense
7300 Salaries Expense
7350 Supplies Expense
7400 Taxes – FIT Expense
7500 Utilities Expense
7900 Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets

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standard chart of accounts

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

52

Tax Brackets

See Also:
Marginal Tax Rate
Prepaid Income Tax
Ad Valorem Tax
Deferred Income Tax
Cash Flow After Tax

Tax Brackets

What are tax brackets? Tax brackets are levels of taxation determined by income. Individuals with income falling within a certain tax bracket pay taxes according to the stated rate for that bracket. Typically, lower income is taxed at a lower rate and higher income is taxed at a higher rate. The idea is that people making more money can afford to pay more taxes and still live comfortably while people making less money have less income available to pay towards taxes. Tax brackets are a component of progressive tax rate systems.

Tax Bracket Example on 2008’s Tax Rates

Here is a tax bracket example based on 2008’s tax rates. Let’s look at three individuals with three different incomes. The first person earns annual taxable income of $20,000 dollars. The second earns annual taxable income of $50,000 dollars. The third person earns annual taxable income of $150,000 dollars.

The tax brackets for this hypothetical example are as follows. Individuals making less than $25,000 dollars of annual taxable income must pay taxes at the rate of 15%. Individuals earning income between $25,001 and $50,000 dollars must pay taxes at a rate of 20%. And individuals making more than $50,001 dollars of annual taxable income must pay 25% taxes.

In this example, the first individual, the person with a salary of $20,000 who pays taxes according to the first tax bracket tax rate, pays taxes of 15%. This amounts to $3,000 dollars of taxes due for that individual. The second individual, the person earning $50,000 dollars who is taxed at 20% ends up paying taxes of $10,000. While the third individual, the one making $150,000 dollars and paying taxes at a rate of 25% ends up paying $37,500 dollars. Of course, these are not the real tax brackets in the U.S. or elsewhere, they are merely hypothetical examples for illustrative purposes.

US Tax Brackets 2008

Tax Rate      Single                    Married Filing Jointly 
10%           $0 - $8,025               $0 - $16,050 
15%           $8,026 - $32,550          $16,051 - $65,100 
25%           $32,551 - $78,850         $65,101 - $131,450 
28%           $78,851 - $164,550        $131,451 - $200,300 
33%           $164,551 - $357,700       $200,301 - $357,700 
35%           Over $357,701             Over $357,701

Tax Bracket Example on 2018’s Tax Rates

Let’s look at another tax bracket example based on 2018’s tax rates. There are three different people that earn different incomes. The first person earns annual taxable income of $50,000 dollars. The second earns annual taxable income of $100,000 dollars. The third person earns annual taxable income of $250,000 dollars. By using the US Tax Brackets 2018 chart below, the first person is in the 22% tax bracket; the second person in the 24% tax bracket; the third person in the 35% tax bracket.

The first individual makes $50,000. Using the 22% bracket, this individual owes $11,000.

The second individual makes $100,000. Using the 24% bracket, this individual owes $24,000.

The third individual makes $250,000. Using the 35% bracket, this individual owes $87,500.

US Tax Brackets 2018

Tax Rate      Single                    Married Filing Jointly 
10%           $0 - $9,524               $0 - $19,049 
12%           $9,525 - $38,699          $19,050 - $77,399 
22%           $38,700 - $82,499         $77,400 - $164,999 
24%           $82,500 - $157,499        $165,000 - $314,999 
32%           $157,500 - $199,999       $315,000 - $399,999 
35%           $200,000 - $499,999       $400,000 - $599,999
37%           $500,000 +                $600,000 +

IRS Tax Bracket Information

For IRS tax bracket information, IRS tax bracket tables, and IRS tax brackets for 2018, go to the following website: irs.gov.

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tax brackets

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

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