Tag Archives | return on equity

ROE (Return on Equity)

See Also:
Return On Equity Example
Return on Asset
Financial Leverage
Gross Profit Margin Ratio Analysis
Return on Equity Analysis
Fixed Asset Turnover Analysis

Return on Equity (ROE)

The return on equity, or ROE, is defined as the amount of profit or net income a company earns per investment dollar. It reveals how much profit a company earns with the money shareholders have invested. The investment dollars differ in that it only accounts for common shareholders. This is often beneficial because it allows companies and investors alike to see what sort of return the voting shareholders are getting, if preferred, and other types of shares that are not counted.

The term can be confusing as it has various aliases. For example, Return on Equity used to be called Return on Common Equity; however, ROCE now refers to Return on Capital Employed. Return on Equity is also the equivalent to Return on Net Worth (RONW).

Return on Equity Explanation (ROE) 

ROE is a measure of how well a company uses its investment dollars to generate profits; often times, it is more important to a shareholder than return on investment (ROI). It tells common stock investors how effectively their capital is being reinvested. For example, a company with high return on equity (ROE) is more successful in generating cash internally. Thus, investors are always looking for companies with high and growing returns on common equity. However, not all high ROE companies make good investments. Instead, the better benchmark is to compare a company’s return on common equity with its industry average. The higher the ratio, the better the company.

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Return on Equity (ROE) Formula

The return on equity formula is as follows:

ROE = Net Income (NI)/ Average Shareholder’s Equity

The Net Income accounts for the full fiscal year (prior to dividends paid to common stock holders and after dividends paid to preferred stock holders).

Find the average shareholder’s equity by combining the beginning common stock for the year, on the balance sheet, and the ending common stock value. Then divide these two values by two for the average amount in the year and do not include preferred shares.

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ROE

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Impact of FIT on Sustainable Growth Rate

The Institute of Fiscal Studies authored a study on tax systems in the UK called “Tax by Design: Mirrlees Review.” They concluded that “in the long-run, the tax system should be judged in part on its impact on the sustainable growth rate of the economy… viewing efficiency in a dynamic as well as static sense.” As we enter into tax season, you as the financial leader of your company should understand the impact of FIT on sustainable growth rate in your company.

What is Sustainable Growth Rate?

Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) is the maximum amount of growth that an organization can sustain without increasing their financial leverage. It commonly suggests the percentage (%) growth in revenue that an organization can sustain with its current profit margin, earnings retention rate, leverage, and asset turnover.

Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) = (1-d) x ROE

Dividend Payout Ratio (d) =  dividends / earnings

Return on Equity (ROE) = net income / shareholders’ equity

Even though there are numerous methods to increase your sustainable growth rate (such as increase the profit margin, asset turnover ratio, assets to equity ratio, or retention rate), the federal income tax can blindside you if you don’t prepare for it. FIT is unavoidable.

There are several economic theories concerning FIT, including the Laffer Curve and Reaganomics, that can be utilized to understand the impact of FIT on your SGR.

Laffer Curveimpact on sustainable growth rate

The Laffer Curve, created by Arthur Laffer, demonstrates the relationship between governmental tax revenue and tax rates. It important to understand this curve because at any given point on the curve, the amount of financial leverage you can supply to spur growth will differ.

If the tax rate is at Point A, then the government isn’t necessarily pleased by leaving your company with more dropping to the bottom line. This level of tax rates allows for your company to be more productive. Not only will you be able to breathe easier knowing you don’t owe the government so much, but your employees will be incentivized to work harder. They now know that their hard-earned money will land in their pockets. But having low tax rates isn’t always ideal. This is because your employees don’t have to necessarily work more to attain the “same” amount of “success” as they would at the Equilibrium Point.

If the federal income tax rate is at Point B, then both your company and your employees will question why should work be done. Since the government will be taking away 80-95% of revenue or income, the motivation to work will decrease significantly. At the point, your sustainable growth rate will be affected dramatically because the amount of financial leverage you have to spur growth is minimal. This point is typically seen in dictatorial economies.

Like in all things, there is an Equilibrium Point. This point allows for the government to make money as well as your company. Productivity remains high, allowing you more flexibility to provide growth in the company.

Although you cannot control the tax rate that the government has set, know how it impacts your company. One way to do this is by understanding the history of income tax rates.

Reaganomics

impact on sustainable growth rate

President Ronald Reagan called for widespread tax cuts during his presidential election in 1980. Within this economic plan, we saw four major factors:

  • deregulation of domestic markets
  • increased military spending
  • widespread tax cuts
  • decreased personal spending

The hope in implementing this plan was to reduce company’s expenses (primarily from tax expenses) to improve the economy as a whole. But as we saw with the Laffer Curve, there is a point when federal income taxes could be too low to improve the sustainable growth rate of a company.

Impact of FIT on Sustainable Growth Rate

In any company, cash is king. One of the major cash expenses that every company has is federal income taxes. Any tax strategy used to drive financial performance should not be considered as the end-all-be-all. The FIT reduces the amount of cash or financial leverage you have to increase your sustainable growth rate.

However, there are mechanisms or key performance indicators (KPIs) that you can utilize to focus on increasing your internal financial leverage. FIT is something that you cannot avoid. It will affect your sustainable growth rate. But by using a few indicators to measure profitability, etc, you’ll be better able to increase your SGR.

(NOTE: Want to start measuring your company’s KPIs today? Check out our KPI Discovery Cheatsheet!)

When calculating your sustainable growth rate, it’s important to recognize that any positive rate can allow for growth. It’s imperative to calculate FIT when you’re expecting or desiring growth.

Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) = (1-d) x ROE

ROE (net income / shareholders’ equity) should have your FIT factored in. It’s easy to forget this important step until you find your wanting to utilize your internal financial leverage and you lost 35% of profit, severely reducing the financial leverage that you thought you had. Know the impact that the federal income tax has on your sustainable growth rate.

If you want to track your sustainable growth rate, then download your KPI Discovery Cheatsheet today.

impact of FIT on sustainable growth rate

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impact of FIT on sustainable growth rate

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Shareholders Equity

See Also:
Return on Equity Analysis
Return on Common Equity (ROCE)
Retained Earnings
Balance the Balance Sheet
Return on Equity Example

Shareholders Equity Definition

Shareholders equity is an essential part of the accounting equation: Shareholders Equity = Total Assets – Total Liabilities. It is the difference between the value of a company’s assets and liabilities. This does not mean that every company has a shareholders equity account with money in it, yet it does mean that every business has this account on the balance sheet. This is because shareholders equity comes from the shareholders’ investments into the business and from retained earnings. In new companies, a large portion of this equity comes from the owners’ initial investments. In a more mature-stage company, retained earnings is often the majority of shareholders equity on the balance sheet.


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Retained Earnings

Retained earnings is one of the two components that make up Shareholders Equity. It is simply the net income that a business does not distribute to its shareholders. This account is listed underneath Shareholders Equity and is closed out after each period.

As mentioned, dividends are taken out of net income before going into the retained earnings account. The decision to pay dividends is affected by taxes and the required reinvestment for the next period. Distributing less or more affects a company’s taxes as well as the shareholders’ taxes. By paying out large dividends, a company can minimize its takes due. This transfers the tax liability to the shareholders. Keeping net income to reinvest into the business also has tax implications. Holding onto cash rather than paying dividends results in higher taxes.

Return on Equity

Return on equity (ROE) is a term to describe net income as a percentage of shareholders equity. In other words, return on equity is net income / shareholders equity. This percentage shows how efficient a company is at using shareholders equity to create a profit. When looking at a company, examining its return on equity over the last several years can show the true growth of a company. ROE is a fast indicator of sustainable growth, since net profit is the ‘organic’ way to reinvest into a company. For this reason, many refer to ROE as the sustainable growth rate.

Calling return on investment sustainable growth rate is helpful in planning cash needs. If a business has a ROE of 10%, then it knows that it can reinvest and grow 10% that year without outside investment. This can be very helpful for investors. If an entrepreneur shows a business plan with a projected 30% annual growth, sustaining a 15% ROE, and has no plans for outside investment, then he or she will inevitably have cash flow problems. Additional funds make up the disparity between the 15% and 30%. Being cognizant of a business’s sustainable growth rate helps plan for future cash flow problems. After all, underestimating cash needs is one of the top reasons for businesses that fail.

Shareholders Equity

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Sustainable Growth Rate

See Also:
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Internal Rate of Return Example
Impact of FIT on Sustainable Growth Rate

Sustainable Growth Rate Definition  

The sustainable growth rate (SGR) is a company’s maximum growth rate in sales using internal financial resources, while not having to increase debt or issue new equity.

Sustainable Growth Rate Explained

Companies who plan ahead and maintain sustainable growth rates will ultimately circumvent unprofitable growth. Thus by managing the growth rate, companies can avoid straining financial resources and overextending their financial leverage. Rapid growth and increased sales are dependent on financial resources. So, in order to improve sales in sustainable growth, a firm will need new assets, which can be financed through an increase in owners’ equity (retained earnings).

If a company plans to increase the SGR without issuing new equity or borrowing additional financial resources, then it should increase the profit margin, asset turnover ratio, assets to equity ratio, or retention rate. By using the return on equity and dividend payout ratio, the SGR then enables firms to forecast future equity and develop optimal growth rates.


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Calculate the sustainable growth rate using the following two equations.

Sustainable Growth Rate Formula 1

When you use the Return on Equity and dividend-payout ratio, you should use the following SGR formula:

SGR = (1-d) x ROE

d is the Dividend Payout Ratio (dividends divided by earnings). ROE is the Return on Equity (net income divided by shareholders’ equity).

Sustainable Growth Rate Formula 2

The second equation to calculate the sustainable growth rate is to multiply the four variables for profit margin, asset turnover ratio, assets to equity ratio, and retention rate:

SGR = PRAT

P is the Profit Margin (net profit divided by revenue). Whereas, R is the Retention Rate (1 minus the dividend payout ratio). And A is the Asset Turnover Ratio (sales revenue divided by total assets).  Finally, T is the Assets-to-Equity Ratio (total assets divided by shareholders’ equity).

Sustainable Growth Rate Example

What is the sustainable growth rate for a company with Shareholder’s Equity of $400 and net income of $100? Reinvest $40 of the net income as dividends.

ROE = net income divided by shareholders’ equity = 100/400 = 25% or .25

Dividend-payout-ratio = dividends divided by net income = 40/100 = 40% or .40

SGR = (1-d) x ROE = (1-.4) x .25 = 15% or .15

From this example, the SGR works out to be 15%. First, calculate SGR by multiplying one minus the dividend-payout-ratio by the return on equity. A SGR of 15% indicates that the company can increase future earnings and sales up to 15% annually without having to borrow more funds or issue new equity. Learn other ways to increase the value (and cash flow) of your company by downloading the free 25 Ways to Improve Cash Flow whitepaper.

Sustainable Growth Rate

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Return On Equity Example

Return On Equity Example

A return on equity example – Melanie, after seeing success in her corporate career, has left the comfortable life to become an angel investor. She has worked diligently to select companies and their managers, hold these managers accountable to their promises, provide advice and mentoring, and lead her partners to capitalization while minimizing risk. At this stage, Melanie is ready to receive her pay-out. As a result, Melanie wants to know her Return on Equity ratio for one of her client companies.

So, Melanie begins by finding the net income and average shareholder’s equity for the venture. Looking back to her records, Melanie has invested $20,000 in the business. Her net income from it is $6,000 per year. Performing her return on equity analysis yields the following results:

Return on equity: $6,000 / $20,000 =30%

Melanie is happy with her results. Purposefully starting small, she has built the experience and confidence to be successful. She can now move on to bigger and better deals.

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return on equity example

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return on equity example

See Also:

Return on Common Equity (ROCE)
Return on Equity (ROE)

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Return on Equity Analysis

See Also:
Financial Ratios
Return on Asset
Required Rate of Return
Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
Debt to Equity Ratio
Return on Common Equity (ROCE)
What The CEO Wants You to Know How Your Company Really Works

Return on Equity Analysis

Defined also as return on net worth (RONW), return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the money a shareholder has invested.

Return on Equity Explanation

This term is explained as a measure of how well a company uses investment dollars to generate profits. Return on equity is more important to a shareholder than return on investment (ROI) because it tells investors how effectively their capital is being reinvested. Therefore, a company with high return on equity is more successful to generate cash internally. Investors are always looking for companies with high and growing returns on equity. However, not all high ROE companies make good investments. The better benchmark is to compare a company’s return on equity with its industry average. Generally, the higher the ratio, the better a company is.

Are you in the process of selling your company? The first thing to do is to identify “destroyers” that can impact your company’s value. Click here to download your free “Top 10 Destroyers of Value“.

Return on Equity Formula

The following return on equity formula forms a simple example for solving ROE problems.

Return on Equity Ratio = Net income ÷ Average shareholders equity

When solving return on equity, equation solutions only form part of the problem. Thus, one must be able to apply the equation to a variety of different and changing scenarios.

Return on Equity Calculation

Average shareholders’ equity, or return on equity, is calculated by adding the shareholders’ equity at the beginning of a period to the shareholders’ equity at period’s end and dividing the result by two. Unfortunately, no simple return on equity calculator can complete the job that a solid understanding of ROE can.

For example, a company has $6,000 in net income, and $20,000 in average shareholders’ equity.

Return on equity: $6,000 / $20,000 =30%

In conclusion, a company that has $0.3 of net income for every dollar that has been invested by shareholder.

Return on Equity Example

Melanie, after seeing success in her corporate career, has left the comfortable life to become an angel investor. She has worked diligently to select companies and their managers, hold these managers accountable to their promises, provide advice and mentoring, and lead her partners to capitalization while minimizing risk. At this stage, Melanie is ready to receive her pay-out. Melanie wants to know her Return on Equity analysis ratio for one of her client companies.

Melanie begins by finding the net income and average shareholder’s equity for the venture. Looking back to her records, Melanie has invested $20,000 in the business. Her net income from it is $6,000 per year. Performing her return on equity analysis yields the following results:

Return on equity: $6,000 / $20,000 =30%

Melanie is happy with her results. Because she was purposeful and started small, she built the experience and confidence to be successful. She can now move on to bigger and better deals.

If you’re looking to sell your company, download the free Top 10 Destroyers of Value whitepaper to learn how to maximize your value.

return on equity analysis

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Resources

For statistical information about industry financial ratios, please go to the following websites: www.bizstats.com and www.valueline.com.

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