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Threat of New Entrants (one of Porter’s Five Forces)

See also:
Porter’s Five Forces of Competition
Supplier Power
Buyer Bargaining Power
Threat of Substitutes
Intensity of Rivalry
Complementors (Sixth Force)

Threat of New Entrants Definition

In Porters five forces, threat of new entrants refers to the threat new competitors pose to existing competitors in an industry. Therefore, a profitable industry will attract more competitors looking to achieve profits. If it is easy for these new entrants to enter the market – if entry barriers are low – then this poses a threat to the firms already competing in that market. More competition – or increased production capacity without concurrent increase in consumer demand – means less profit to go around. According to Porter’s 5 forces, threat of new entrants is one of the forces that shape the competitive structure of an industry. Thus, Porters threat of new entrants definition revolutionized the way people look at competition in an industry.

Threat of New Entrants Explanation

The threat of new entrants Porter created affects the competitive environment for the existing competitors and influences the ability of existing firms to achieve profitability. For example, a high threat of entry means new competitors are likely to be attracted to the profits of the industry and can enter the industry with ease. New competitors entering the marketplace can either threaten or decrease the market share and profitability of existing competitors and may result in changes to existing product quality or price levels. An example of the threat of new entrants porter devised exists in the graphic design industry: there are very low barriers to entry.

As new competitors flood the marketplace, have a plan to react before it impacts your business. Download the External Analysis whitepaper to gain an advantage over competitors by overcoming obstacles and preparing to react to external forces, such as it being a buyer’s market. 

A high threat of new entrance can both make an industry more competitive and decrease profit potential for existing competitors. On the other hand, a low threat of entry makes an industry less competitive and increases profit potential for the existing firms. New entrants are deterred by barriers to entry.

Barriers to Entry

Several factors determine the degree of the threat of new entrants to an industry. Furthermore, many of these factors fall into the category of barriers to entry, or entry barriers. Barriers to entry are factors or conditions in the competitive environment of an industry that make it difficult for new businesses to begin operating in that market.

Examples of Barriers to Entry

A high production-profitability threshold requirement, or economy of scale, is an entry barrier that can lower the threat of entry. Highly differentiated products or well-known brand names are both barriers to entry that can lower the threat of new entrants. Significant upfront capital investments required to start a business can lower the threat of new entrants. Whereas, high consumer switching costs are a barrier to entry. When access to distribution channels is an entry barrier – if it is difficult to gain access to these channels, the threat of entry is low. Access to favorable locations, proprietary technology, or proprietary production material inputs also increase entry barriers and decrease the threat of entry.

And of course, if the opposite is true for any of these factors, barriers to entry are low and the threat of new entrants is high. For example, no required economies of scale, standardized or commoditized products, low initial capital investment requirements, low consumer switching costs, easy access to distribution channels, and no relevant advantages due to locale or proprietary assets all indicate that entry barriers are low and the threat of entry is high.

Other factors also influence the threat of new entrants. Expected retaliation of existing competitors and the existence of relevant government subsidies or policies can discourage new entrants. While no expected retaliation and the lack of relevant government subsidies or polices can encourage new entrants.

Threat of Entry Analysis

When analyzing a given industry, all of the aforementioned factors regarding the threat of new entrants may not apply. But some, if not many, certainly will. Of the factors that do apply, some may indicate a high threat of entry and some may indicate a low threat of entry. But, the results will not always be straightforward. Therefore it is necessary to consider the nuances of the analysis and the particular circumstances of the given firm and industry when using these data to evaluate the competitive structure and profit potential of a market.

High Threat of Entry of New Competitors When:

  • Profitability does not require economies of scale
  • Products are undifferentiated
  • Brand names are not well-known
  • Initial capital investment is low
  • Consumer switching costs are low
  • Accessing distribution channels is easy
  • Location is not an issue
  • Proprietary technology is not an issue
  • Proprietary materials is not an issue
  • Government policy is not an issue
  • Expected retaliation of existing firms is not an issue

Threat of New Entry is Low if:

  • Profitability requires economies of scale
  • Products are differentiated
  • Brand names are well-known
  • Initial capital investment is high
  • Consumer switching costs are high
  • Accessing distribution channels is difficult
  • Location is an issue
  • Proprietary technology is an issue
  • Proprietary materials is an issue
  • Government policy is an issue
  • Expected retaliation of existing firms is an issue

Threat of New Entry of competitors Interpretation

When conducting Porter’s 5 forces industry analysis, a low threat of new entrants makes an industry more attractive and increases profit potential for the firms already competing within that industry, while a high threat of new entrants makes an industry less attractive and decreases profit potential for the firms already competing within that industry. The threat of new entrants porter’s 5 forces explained is one of the factors to consider when analyzing the structural environment of an industry. To continue to expand your analysis, download the free External Analysis whitepaper by clicking here .

threat of new entrants

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Porter’s Five Forces of Competition

See also:
SWOT Analysis
Threat of New Entrants
Supplier Power
Buyer Bargaining Power
Threat of Substitutes
Intensity of Rivalry
Complementors (Sixth Force)
Marketing Mix (4 P’s of Marketing)

Porter’s Five Forces of Competition Definition

Porter’s 5 forces framework is used for strategic industry analysis. It was developed in 1979 by Michael Porter, Harvard Business School professor. Michael Porter’s five forces of competition can be used to examine and analyze the competitive structure of an industry by looking at 5 forces of competition that influence and shape profit potential. Furthermore, Porter’s five forces of competition have become a central concept to business theory.

Porter’s 5 forces industry analysis does more than look at a company’s direct competitors. It looks at multiple aspects of the industry’s competitive structure and economic environment, which includes the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of new entrants, and the threat of substitute products. The idea is to look at each of these factors and determine the degree to which they increase competition in the industry. If the forces are strong, then they increase competition. Whereas if the forces are weak, then they decrease competition. Porter’s five forces definition can be utilized by any business. In addition, it can be applied to any industry.

Download the External Analysis whitepaper to gain an advantage over competitors by overcoming obstacles and preparing to react to external forces, such as it being a buyer’s market.

Environment of Industry

The competitive environment of an industry has a strong influence on the performance of businesses within that industry. Porter’s five forces defined whether an industry is attractive or unattractive from the perspective of a company competing in that industry. Porter’s 5 forces of competition provide an excellent method to consider an industry before entrance.

An attractive industry is one which offers the potential for profitability. If a company uses Porter’s 5 forces industry analysis and concludes that the competitive structure of the industry is such that there is an opportunity for high profits, then the company can elect to enter that industry or market. Or, if the company is already competing in that industry or market, then it can use the competitive forces Porter created to determine its optimal position within the marketplace.

An unattractive industry is one which does not offer the potential for profitability. If a company uses the five forces Porter created and concludes that the competitive forces in the industry are too strong or unfavorable, then that company may choose not to enter that industry or market. Or, if the company is already competing in that industry or market, then it can use Porter’s 5 forces model to find the best possible strategic placement in it.

5 Forces of Competition

Michael Porter’s 5 competitive forces:

  1. Threat of new entrants
  2. Bargaining power of suppliers
  3. Bargaining power of buyers
  4. Threat of substitute products
  5. Intensity of rivalry among competitors

Sixth Force

Sometimes a sixth force is added to the competitive forces Porter conceptualized. The model is called Porter’s Six Forces. The sixth force of competition is:

6. Complementors

As you’re evaluating your competition using Porter’s five forces of competition, don’t skip evaluating all external factors that can impact and potentially destroy your company. Download the External Analysis whitepaper to learn how to start.

Porter’s Five Forces Example

Analyzing Porter’s five forces example does not always yield a simple or straightforward evaluation of the attractiveness and profitability of an industry. Some of the forces may be strong, increasing competition and decreasing profit potential, while other forces may be weak, decreasing competition and increasing profit potential. The results may be conflicting and the interpretation depends on the particular business and the particular industry. However, for the sake of simplicity, there is an overall attractive industry structure and an overall unattractive industry structure. Porter’s five forces model is merely a framework.

According to Michael Porter’s five competitive forces industry analysis, an attractive industry has the following characteristics. The threat of new entrants is low. The bargaining power of suppliers is weak. Then the bargaining power of buyers is weak. The threat of substitute products is low. Finally, the intensity of rivalry among industry competitors is low. Complementary products or services are unavailable. If Porter’s forces of competition are as described above, then the industry is attractive and there is profit potential.

According to Porter’s 5 forces of competition, an unattractive industry has the following characteristics. The threat of new entrants is high. Then the bargaining power of suppliers is strong. The bargaining power of buyers is strong. The threat of substitute products is high. Finally, the intensity of rivalry among industry competitors is high. Complementary products or services are unavailable. If the forces of competition are as described above, then the industry is unattractive and there is limited profit potential.

Porter’s Analysis – Attractive Industry

The following indicates an attractive industry:

  • Threat of entrants is low
  • Threat of substitute products is low
  • Bargaining power of buyers is low/weak
  • Bargaining power of suppliers is low/weak
  • Intensity of rivalry among existing firms is low

Porter’s Analysis – Unattractive Industry

The following indicates an unattractive industry:

  • Threat of entrants is high
  • Threat of substitute products is high
  • Bargaining power of buyers is high/strong
  • Bargaining power of suppliers is high/strong
  • Intensity of rivalry among existing firms is high

Porter’s 5 Forces Strengths

The 5 forces of competition is a strong tool for conducting an in-depth analysis of the competitive structure of an industry. Furthermore, Porter’s 5 forces model can be used to complement a SWOT analysis. In addition, the 5 forces framework is useful in strategic planning and can help a company determine whether or not to enter an industry or market by evaluating the potential for profitability.

Porter’s 5 Forces Weaknesses

Porter’s 5 forces of competition have a few weaknesses and limitations. First, the model underestimates the influence of a company’s core competencies on its ability to achieve profit. It, instead, assumes the industry structure is the sole determining factor. Then Porter’s 5 forces definition is difficult to apply to large multinational corporations with synergies and interdependencies achieved from a portfolio of businesses. Additionally, the five forces framework assumes there is no collusion in the industry. Finally, Porter’s analysis doesn’t consider the possibility of creating a new market.

As you use Porter’s five forces of competition to shape profit potential, it’s important to expand analysis by evaluating the entire external environment. Download the free External Analysis whitepaper to overcome obstacles and be prepared to react to external forces..

Porter's Five Forces of Competition

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Porter's Five Forces of Competition

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