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Should You Use Margin or Markup Percentage for Pricing?

The biggest struggle in maintaining or improving profitability often comes down to pricing.  Two of the most common methods companies use to price their products are margin and markup.  Unfortunately, many people think they’re pricing their products based upon a desired margin, but they’re really using markup.  There is a major difference between the two methods and their impact on your bottom line.

markup percentageThe Problem With Markup

Markup is commonly used to find the price of retail products which are somewhat of a commodity; costs are fixed and the market dictates purchasing price. Let’s explore what happens when you use markup as your primary reference for pricing.

Calculating Markup Percentage

Markup Percentage is the percentage difference between the actual cost and the selling price.

The formula for markup = selling price – cost. 

The formula for markup percentage = markup amount/cost.

Let’s say I owned a t-shirt company, and the unit cost of a t-shirt is $8. I want to sell it for $12. The retail markup would then be $4 because:

Retail markup = selling price – cost = $12 – $8 = $4.

The retail markup percentage is 50%, because

$4/$8 = .50

How Using Markup Can Hurt Your Business in the Long Run

Markup is the difference between the actual cost and the selling price.  Since it is generally market-driven, it often fails to take into account a lot of the indirect costs associated with the product. Setting prices in terms of a particular markup can be dangerous unless the markup has been calculated in a way to consider all product costs – direct and indirect.

Are your sales suffering because of pricing issues?  Check out our Pricing for Profit Inspection Guide to improve your pricing strategies.

Gross Margin Percentage

With our clients, we recommend using gross margin (or profit) percentage for a number of reasons. It is more reliable and accurate, and we can easily see the impact on the bottom line.

Calculating Margin

As mentioned before, gross margin is:

Sales – Cost of Goods Sold (COGS). 

We then find the gross margin percentage, which is:

(Gross Margin/Sales Price) X 100.

Based on these calculations, how do we determine the selling price given a desired gross margin? It’s all in the inverse (of the gross margin formula, that is). By simply dividing the cost of the product or service by the inverse of the gross margin equation, you will arrive at the selling price needed to achieve the desired gross margin percentage.

Margin Percentage Example

For example, Steve charges a 20% markup on all projects for his computer and software company which specializes in office setup. Steve has just taken a job with a company that wants to set up a large office space. The total cost needed to set up the space with computer and the respective software is $18,000. With a markup of 20% the selling price will be $21,600 (see how to calculate markup above). The margin percentage can be calculated as follows:

Margin Percentage = (21,600 – 18,000)/21,600 = 16.67%

Margin vs Markup

As you can see from the above example, a 20% markup will not yield a 20% marginFailing to understand the difference between the financial impact of using margin vs. markup to set prices can lead to serious financial consequences.  In the example above, if Steve were to assume his 20% markup would yield a 20% margin, his net income would actually be 3.3% less than expected. While a 3.3% difference in net income may not seem like much, to many low-profit-margin businesses it can mean the difference between solvency or bankruptcy.

Additionally, using margin to set your prices makes it easier to predict profitability.  Using markup, you cannot target the bottom line effectively because it does not include all the costs associated with making that product.

How to Minimize Margin vs Markup Mistakes

Margin vs Markup Chart

15% Markup = 13.0% Gross Profit
20% Markup = 16.7% Gross Profit
25% Markup = 20.0% Gross Profit
30% Markup = 23.0% Gross Profit
33.3% Markup = 25.0% Gross Profit
40% Markup = 28.6% Gross Profit
43% Markup = 30.0% Gross Profit
50% Markup = 33.0% Gross Profit
75% Markup = 42.9% Gross Profit
100% Markup = 50.0% Gross Profit

Conclusion

To sum things up,  markup percentage is the percentage difference between the actual cost and the selling price, while gross margin percentage is the percentage difference between the selling price and the profit. Markup is not as effective as gross margin when it comes to pricing your product.  Not only should you take into account how much it costs to acquire the product, but you also need to take into account the indirect costs associated with your product in order to ensure you’re selling your products at a price that will result in profit.

If you’re still uncertain about how to price your product or service to be profitable, download the free Pricing For Profit Inspection Guide. This ultimate guide allows you to easily discover whether you have a pricing problem and gives you steps to fix it.

markup or margin

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Margin Percentage Calculation

See Also:
Margin vs Markup
Markup Percentage Calculation
Retail Markup
Gross Profit Margin Ratio Analysis
Net Profit Margin Analysis

Margin Percentage Definition

Gross margin defined is Gross Profit/Sales Price. All items needed to calculate the gross margin percentage can be found on the income statement. The margin percentage often refers to sales or profitability which may help lead to several key understandings about the company’s business model as well as how successful the company is at maintaining its cost structure to gain the proper amount of sales. Analysis of margins within a business is often useful in controlling the price in which you need to sale as well as a control on the cost associated to make the sale. Look at the following margin percentage calculation process.

(NOTE: Want the Pricing for Profit Inspection Guide? It walks you through a step-by-step process to maximizing your profits on each sale. Get it here!)

How to Calculate Margin Percentage

In this example, the gross margin is $25. This results in a 20% gross margin percentage:

Gross Margin Percentage = (Gross Profit/Sales Price) X 100 = ($25/$125) X 100 = 20%

Not quite the “margin percentage” we were looking for. So, how do we determine the selling price given a desired gross margin? It’s all in the inverse…of the gross margin formula, that is. By simply dividing the cost of the product or service by the inverse of the gross margin equation, you will arrive at the selling price needed to achieve the desired gross margin percentage.

For example, if a 25% gross margin percentage is desired, then the selling price would be $133.33 and the markup rate would be 33.3%:

Sales Price = Unit Cost/(1 – Gross Margin Percentage) = $100/(1 – .25) = $133.33

Markup Percentage = (Sales Price – Unit Cost)/Unit Cost = ($133.33 – $100)/$100 = 33.3%

Margin Percentage Calculation Example

Look at the following margin percentage calculation example. Glen charges a 20% markup on all projects for his computer and software company which specializes in office setup. Glen has just taken a job with a company that wants to set up a large office space. The total cost needed to set up the space with computer and the respective software is $17,000. With a markup of 20% the selling price will be $20,400(see markup calculation for details). The margin percentage can be calculated as follows:

Margin Percentage = (20,400 – 17,000)/20,400 = 16.67%

Using what you’ve learned from how to calculate your margin percentage, the next step is to download the free Pricing for Profit Inspection Guide. Easily discover if your company has a pricing problem and fix it.

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Strategic CFO Lab Member Extra

Access your Strategic Pricing Model Execution Plan in SCFO Lab. The step-by-step plan to set your prices to maximize profits.

Click here to access your Execution Plan. Not a Lab Member?

Click here to learn more about SCFO Labs

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