Tag Archives | liabilities

Standard Chart of Accounts

See Also:
Chart of Accounts (COA)
Problems in Chart of Accounts Design
Complex Number for SGA Expenses

Standard Chart of Accounts

In accounting, a standard chart of accounts is a numbered list of the accounts that comprise a company’s general ledger. Furthermore, the company chart of accounts is basically a filing system for categorizing all of a company’s accounts as well as classifying all transactions according to the accounts they affect. The standard chart of accounts list of categories may include the following:

The standard chart of accounts is also called the uniform chart of accounts. Use a chart of accounts template to prepare the basic chart of accounts for any subsidiary companies or related entities. By doing so, you make consolidation easier.

Organize in Numerical System

Furthermore, a standard chart of accounts is organized according to a numerical system. Thus, each major category will begin with a certain number, and then the sub-categories within that major category will all begin with the same number. If assets are classified by numbers starting with the digit 1, then cash accounts might be labeled 101, accounts receivable might be labeled 102, inventory might be labeled 103, and so on. Whereas, if liabilities accounts are classified by numbers starting with the digit 2, then accounts payable might be labeled 201, short-term debt might be labeled 202, and so on.


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Number of Accounts Needed

Depending on the size of the company, the chart of accounts may include either few dozen accounts or a few thousand accounts. Whereas, if a company is more sophisticated, then the chart of accounts can be either paper-based or computer-based. In conclusion, the standard chart of account is useful for analyzing past transactions and using historical data to forecast future trends.

You can use the following example of chart of accounts to set up the general ledger of most companies. In addition, you may customize your COA to your industry by adding to the Inventory, Revenue and Cost of Goods Sold sections to the sample chart of accounts.

SAMPLE CHART OF ACCOUNTS

Refer to the following sample chart of accounts. Each company’s chart of accounts may look slightly different. But if you are starting from scratch, then the following is great place to start.

1000 ASSETS

1010 CASH Operating Account
1020 CASH Debitors
1030 CASH Petty Cash

1200 RECEIVABLES

1210 A/REC Trade
1220 A/REC Trade Notes Receivable
1230 A/REC Installment Receivables
1240 A/REC Retainage Withheld
1290 A/REC Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts

1300 INVENTORIES

1310 INV – Reserved
1320 INV – Work-in-Progress
1330 INV – Finished Goods
1340 INV – Reserved
1350 INV – Unbilled Cost & Fees
1390 INV – Reserve for Obsolescence

1400 PREPAID EXPENSES & OTHER CURRENT ASSETS

1410 PREPAID – Insurance
1420 PREPAID – Real Estate Taxes
1430 PREPAID – Repairs & Maintenance
1440 PREPAID – Rent
1450 PREPAID – Deposits

1500 PROPERTY PLANT & EQUIPMENT

1510 PPE – Buildings
1520 PPE – Machinery & Equipment
1530 PPE – Vehicles
1540 PPE – Computer Equipment
1550 PPE – Furniture & Fixtures
1560 PPE – Leasehold Improvements

1600 ACCUMULATED DEPRECIATION & AMORTIZATION

1610 ACCUM DEPR Buildings
1620 ACCUM DEPR Machinery & Equipment
1630 ACCUM DEPR Vehicles
1640 ACCUM DEPR Computer Equipment
1650 ACCUM DEPR Furniture & Fixtures
1660 ACCUM DEPR Leasehold Improvements

1700 NON – CURRENT RECEIVABLES

1710 NCA – Notes Receivable
1720 NCA – Installment Receivables
1730 NCA – Retainage Withheld

1800 INTERCOMPANY RECEIVABLES

 

1900 OTHER NON-CURRENT ASSETS

1910 Organization Costs
1920 Patents & Licenses
1930 Intangible Assets – Capitalized Software Costs

2000 LIABILITIES

 

2100 PAYABLES

2110 A/P Trade
2120 A/P Accrued Accounts Payable
2130 A/P Retainage Withheld
2150 Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt
2160 Bank Notes Payable
2170 Construction Loans Payable

2200 ACCRUED COMPENSATION & RELATED ITEMS

2210 Accrued – Payroll
2220 Accrued – Commissions
2230 Accrued – FICA
2240 Accrued – Unemployment Taxes
2250 Accrued – Workmen’s Comp
2260 Accrued – Medical Benefits
2270 Accrued – 401 K Company Match
2275 W/H – FICA
2280 W/H – Medical Benefits
2285 W/H – 401 K Employee Contribution

2300 OTHER ACCRUED EXPENSES

2310 Accrued – Rent
2320 Accrued – Interest
2330 Accrued – Property Taxes
2340 Accrued – Warranty Expense

2500 ACCRUED TAXES

2510 Accrued – Federal Income Taxes
2520 Accrued – State Income Taxes
2530 Accrued – Franchise Taxes
2540 Deferred – FIT Current
2550 Deferred – State Income Taxes

2600 DEFERRED TAXES

2610 D/T – FIT – NON CURRENT
2620 D/T – SIT – NON CURRENT

2700 LONG-TERM DEBT

2710 LTD – Notes Payable
2720 LTD – Mortgages Payable
2730 LTD – Installment Notes Payable

2800 INTERCOMPANY PAYABLES

2900 OTHER NON CURRENT LIABILITIES

3000 OWNERS EQUITIES

3100 Common Stock
3200 Preferred Stock
3300 Paid in Capital
3400 Partners Capital
3500 Member Contributions
3900 Retained Earnings

4000 REVENUE

4010 REVENUE – PRODUCT 1
4020 REVENUE – PRODUCT 2
4030 REVENUE – PRODUCT 3
4040 REVENUE – PRODUCT 4
4600 Interest Income
4700 Other Income
4800 Finance Charge Income
4900 Sales Returns and Allowances
4950 Sales Discounts

5000 COST OF GOODS SOLD

5010 COGS – PRODUCT 1
5020 COGS – PRODUCT 2
5030 COGS – PRODUCT 3
5040 COGS – PRODUCT 4
5700 Freight
5800 Inventory Adjustments
5900 Purchase Returns and Allowances
5950 Reserved

6000 – 7000 OPERATING EXPENSES

6010 Advertising Expense
6050 Amortization Expense
6100 Auto Expense
6150 Bad Debt Expense
6200 Bank Charges
6250 Cash Over and Short
6300 Commission Expense
6350 Depreciation Expense
6400 Employee Benefit Program
6550 Freight Expense
6600 Gifts Expense
6650 Insurance – General
6700 Interest Expense
6750 Professional Fees
6800 License Expense
6850 Maintenance Expense
6900 Meals and Entertainment
6950 Office Expense
7000 Payroll Taxes
7050 Printing
7150 Postage
7200 Rent
7250 Repairs Expense
7300 Salaries Expense
7350 Supplies Expense
7400 Taxes – FIT Expense
7500 Utilities Expense
7900 Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets

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standard chart of accounts

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

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Payroll Accounting

See also:
Commission Accounting
PEO Arrangement Compared to Outsourcing Payroll
Direct Labor
Pension Plans
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)

Payroll Accounting

Payroll Accounting is the function of calculating and distributing wages, salaries, and withholdings to employees and certain agencies. It is generally done through different documents such as time sheets, paychecks, and a payroll ledger. Payroll Accounting also involves the process of issuing reports to upper management, so that they are able to make informed decisions about the company’s labor-cost data.

Payroll Accounts

Below are some payroll basic accounts that are used in association with accounting payroll entries as well as a description of each one and the relevance towards payroll.

Assets

Cash is the petty cash account which is used to empty the accrued payroll account when the payroll is distributed to the company’s employees.

Liabilities

Accrued Payroll represents a liability calculated by taking the gross pay and subtracting all deductions, or the amount that is due to the employees.

Federal Income Taxes Withheld

This account serves as a deduction from the gross pay or payroll account. It is an accumulation of payroll taxes as a percentage amount which is due to the U.S. Government. Payroll tax rates differ from business to business.

Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) Taxes Payable

The FICA Taxes Payable represents a liability that is due to the U.S. Government. It is then used to fund institutions like Medicare and the Social Security Administration.

Insurance Withheld

Insurance withheld is another deduction from the gross pay and represents a contribution to the employee’s insurance provided by the employer.

Note: Other voluntary payroll deductions and withholdings can be present like bond or stock withholdings that a company would use for investments on the employee’s behalf. Other deductions include union dues or pension funds that the company may hold for its employees.

Expenses

The payroll account is the gross pay that is calculated by a payroll accountant (i.e. the salary payment or the hourly rate times the number of hours worked).

Payroll Accounting Journal Entries

This is a typical accounting payroll example of journal entries when a company is calculating and distributing the payroll.

Account                           Dr.               Cr.

Calculation:
Payroll                           xxxx

Federal Income Taxes Withheld                       xxxx

FICA Taxes Payable                                  xxxx

Union Dues Withheld                                 xxxx

Bond Withholdings                                   xxxx

Accrued Payroll                                     xxxx
Distribution:
Accrued Payroll                   xxxx
Cash                                                xxxx

Payroll Accountant Duties

Oftentimes, companies outsource their payroll accounting to specialized firms. These firms can perform the same function for a much lower cost than if the company generated them in-house.


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There are six major job functions that the payroll department or specialized company must perform throughout the year, including the following:

1)  Compute gross pay (hourly or salary)

2)  Compute the total amount of deductions (FICA, taxes, etc.)

3)  Calculate the total amount due to employees i.e. the gross pay minus the amount of deductions.

4)  Authorize the amount of payments due to employees.

5)  Distribute the payroll once authorized.

6)  Issue reports to upper management concerning labor-cost data.

Accounting Payroll System

In the past, accounting payroll systems consisted of two journals. The first is the payroll journal. Then, the second is the payroll disbursements journal. Companies used the payroll journal to accrue for salaries and wages towards employees as well as government obligations withheld from the employee’s paycheck. Thus, companies used disbursements journal to pay off these accumulated accruals when they became due.

But thanks to computer systems like Peachtree and Quickbooks, they have combined both of these journals into a payroll ledger. Furthermore, you can outsource these payroll functions at a lower cost and efficiency for a company.

Guide to Outsourcing Your Business's Bookkeeping and Accounting


Payroll Accounting

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

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Balancing the Balance Sheet

See: Balance Sheet

Balance Sheet Definition

The balance sheet is a financial statement that shows a company’s financial position at a point in time. The balance sheet format comes in the following three sections:

The assets represent what the company owns. Then, the liabilities represent what the company owes. Finally, the owners’ equity represents shareholder interests in the company. The value of the company’s assets must equal the value of the company’s liabilities plus the value of the owners’ equity.

This balance sheet formula forms the basis of the statement, also known as the accounting equation.

Assets = Liabilities + Owners’ Equity


Balancing your balance sheet is one method of knowing your economics. To further shape your economics to result in profit, access the Know Your Economics Worksheet.

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Balancing the Balance Sheet

The “balance” in balance sheet indicates the 2 sides have to balance every time. Therefore, the company‘s assets always have to equal liabilities plus owners’ equity. Now, let’s walk through the steps needed in order to know how to start balancing the balance sheet.

Balancing the Balance Sheet Steps

First, start by putting all the company‘s assets on the left side of the sheet. Let’s start with the current assets. For example:

ASSETS

Current Assets
  Cash                                    $  2,000
  Accounts receivable                       20,000
  Inventory                                 10,000
  Supplies                                   3,000
TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS:                    $  35,000

Now let’s add the other types of assets. These are “Property, Plant & Equipment” and “Intangible Assets“.

Property, Plant & Equipment
Land                                      $  5,000
Buildings                                  160,000                             
Equipment                                  200,000    
Less: acum depreciation                    (30,000)
NET PROP, PLANT & EQUIP                    335,000
Intangible assets
Goodwill                                   100,000
Trade names                                200,000
TOTAL INTANGIBLE ASSETS                    300,000
TOTAL ASSETS:                           $  670,000

Now that we have added all the assets together, go to the right side of the balance sheet. Record the liabilities – current and long-term.

LIABILITIES

Current Liabilities
   Notes Payable                         $  5,000
      Accounts Payable                     35,000
   Wages Payable                           10,000
       Interest Payable                     5,000
TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES                  55,000

Long-Term Liabilities
   Notes Payable                           50,000
   Bonds Payable                          500,000
TOTAL LONG-TERM LIABILITIES               550,000

TOTAL LIABILITIES                      $  605,000

After you have your liabilities, add the final portion of the balance sheet –  Owner’s Equity.

Owner's Equity

Common Stock                            $  50,000
Retained Earnings                          50,000
Less: Treasury Stock                      (35,000)
TOTAL OWNER'S EQUITY                    $  65,000

TOTAL LIABILITIES and OWNER'S EQUITY    $  670,000

Finally, you have added everything up. Now, verify if everything holds true to the accounting formula.

Assets = Liabilities + Owner's equity
$  670,00 = $  605,000 + $  65,000       
$  670,000 = $  670,000

Everything is balanced now, as it should be. If for whatever reason it does not end up balancing, then look back at all your numbers and make sure they are all correct. If you need help shaping your economics, then click here to download your free Know Your Economics guide.

Balancing the Balance Sheet

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Balancing the Balance Sheet

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Working Capital

What is Working Capital?

Formula: Current Assets – Current Liabilities = Working Capital

Working Capital (WC) is the difference between Current Assets versus Current Liabilities. Current Assets are those assets that will be turned into cash within one year, whereas Current Liabilities are those liabilities due within one year. This calculation represents the liquidity that a company has to meet its obligations coming due in the next 12 months. Though the amount should be positive, it can be a negative amount in times of distress.

Often used as a management tool, track the change in WC on a weekly basis. A company that is generating profits is usually increasing their WC. In comparison, declining profits often consume WC.

See Flash Report.

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See Also:
Balance Sheet
How to collect accounts receivable
Factoring
Quick Ratio Analysis
Current Ratio Analysis
Financial Ratios

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Unearned Revenue

Unearned Revenue Definition

Unearned revenues are titles for certain revenues that have not been earned. You can also call unearned revenues deferred revenues. Though it seems comically intuitive, unearned revenue is very important and often observed in the real world. In accounting, they are represented as liabilities on the balance sheet. This is because it represents an unfulfilled promise for a service by a company to a buyer. Furthermore, it is represented by a credit on the balance sheet, offset by Cash received by the service provider. In order to balance this liability, service revenue is the debit to the balance sheet that matches up with the unearned revenue credit.

Unearned Revenue Explained

Take, for example, a business situation that would exist between a carpet cleaning company and a homeowner. Before any service takes place, the cleaning company shows up at the house and gives the homeowner an estimate. The homeowner seems pleased with the estimate and pays the cleaner on the spot. At this point, the cleaning company has acquired an unearned revenue liability. In all likelihood, the liability will be cleared overtime with service. Until then, the cleaning company has money that they have not yet earned: “unearned revenue.”

unearned revenue

See Also:
Accounts Payable

1

Net Cash

Net Cash Definition

The net cash formula is cash minus the liabilities. It is often used in business much like the current ratio. It determines a company’s ability to pay off its obligations. You can also use it to determine the amount of cash remaining after different transactions.

Net Cash Meaning

Net cash is generally used in testing for a company’s ability to pay off its liabilities. Many investors use this because it is an easy measure and understand if an investment is suitable for taking on. If a company can pay off all or the majority of its liabilities with solely cash then the investment can be considered safe. Its ratio can also be used to determine how much debt a company can take on to support operations or projects. If a company is looking at transactions then it can tell how profitable those particular transactions are for the company. It can also tell whether or not it is suitable for a company to continue going through those transactions.

If you want more tips on how to improve cash flow, then click here to access our 25 Ways to Improve Cash Flow whitepaper.

Net Cash
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Net Cash

See Also:
Current Ratio Analysis
Quick Ratio Analysis
Financial Ratios
Current Liabilities
Debt Ratio Analysis

1

Insolvency Definition

Insolvency Definition

Insolvency is the inability to pay debts when they are due. It also occurs when a company’s liabilities exceed the value of its assets, if you cannot readily cover these the assets into cash to repay debts. Apply this to either individuals or organizations.

Insolvency Leads to Bankruptcy

Insolvency often leads to bankruptcy. However, you can avoid bankruptcy if the debtor can restructure or renegotiate delinquent debt payment. Out-of-court renegotiation of delinquent debt is called a workout.

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See Also:

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy
Chapter 7 Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy Costs
Bankruptcy Information
Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio Analysis

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