# Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

The most popular method to calculate cost of equity is Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). Why? Because it displays the relationship between risk and expected return for a company’s assets. This model is used throughout financing for calculating expected returns for assets while including risk and cost of capital.

## Cost of Equity

Also known as the required rate of return on common stock, define the cost of equity as the cost of raising funds from equity investors. It is by far the most challenging element in discount rate determination.

## Calculating Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) states that the expected return on an asset is related to its risk as measured by beta:

E(Ri) = Rf + ßi * (E(Rm) – Rf)

Or = Rf + ßi * (risk premium)

Where

E(Ri) = the expected return on asset given its beta

Rf = the risk-free rate of return

E(Rm) = the expected return on the market portfolio

ßi = the asset’s sensitivity to returns on the market portfolio

E(Rm) – Rf = market risk premium, the expected return on the market minus the risk free rate.

### Expected Return of an Asset

Therefore, the expected return on an asset given its beta is the risk-free rate plus a risk premium equal to beta times the market risk premium. Beta is always estimated based on an equity market index. Additionally, determine the beta of a company by the three following variables:

1. The type business the company is in
2. The degree of operating leverage of the company
3. The company’s financial leverage

### Risk-Free Rate of Return

Short-term government debt rate (such as a 30-day T-bill rate, or a long-term government bond yield to maturity) determines the risk-free rate of return. When cash flows come due, it is also determined. Define risk-free rate as the expected returns with certainty.

Additionally, risk premium indicates the “extra return” demanded by investors for shifting their money from riskless investment to an average risk investment. It is also a function of how risk-averse investors are and how risky they perceive investment opportunities compared with a riskless investment.

## Cost of Equity Calculation

For example, a company has a beta of 0.5, a historical risk premium of 6%, and a risk-free rate of 5.25%. Therefore, the required rate of return of this company according to the CAPM is: 5.25% + (0.5 * 6%) = 8.25%

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# Book Value of Equity Per Share (BVPS) Definition

Book Value of Equity per Share (BVPS) is a way to calculate the ratio of a company’s Stakeholder equity (as stated in the balance sheet) to the number of shares outstanding. Investors commonly use BVPS to determine if a stock price is under or overvalued by looking at the company’s current state.

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## Book Value vs Market Value

Investors use both Book Value and Market Value to build strong portfolios. The market price of a stock provides hints to the company’s future growth and financial stability. The book value reveals the current state of a company calculated by its balance sheet. Using both values can assist you in determining whether a stock is valued correctly, thereby helping you invest your money wisely. For example, a company’s BVPS is \$4 and the market value is \$10. In this case, it does not necessarily mean that the stock is overvalued. However, it might mean that the company’s assets have a high earning power or potential. In comparison, it doesn’t necessarily mean it is an undervalued stock if a company’s BVPS is \$4 and the market value is \$2. Instead, it might mean that the financial market has lost confidence in the company’s ability to generate future profits.

## Book Value of Equity Per Share Formula

Calculate the BVPS of a company by dividing total stakeholder equity (excluding preferred shares) by total shares outstanding. Refer to the following formula to calculate BVPS:

BVPS =  Value of Common Equity / # of Shares Outstanding

## Example of Book Value of Equity Per Share (BVPS)

For example, ABC & Co. has \$30,000,000 of stockholder’s equity, \$7,000,000 of preferred stock, and an average of 5,000,000 shares outstanding during the period measured. Calculate BVPS using the following formula:

\$30,000,000 Stockholder’s Equity – \$7,000,000 Preferred Stock ÷ 5,000,000 Average Shares Outstanding

= \$4.60 Book Value Per Share

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## 3 Myths about Private Equity Investors

Myths about private equity can inhibit entrepreneurs from pursuing business opportunities and making rational decisions.  Private equity financing is a complex decision for business owners.  These owners should analyze other financing options and goals for future growth of the company before making important investment decisions.

## 3 Myths about Private Equity Investors

Here are three myths about private equity investors

Private equity is not intended to be a win for the investor and a loss for the business owner. The investor’s best interest is that the entrepreneur grows the business and increases its value so that BOTH sides win.  Private equity investors are not profitable if the value of the company depreciates.

Many business owners perceive private equity investors as greedy and manipulative in cutting them out of the success of their companies.  However, most of the time these perceptions arise when entrepreneurs:

• Lose control
• Blame private equity investors for the demise of their companies

As long as you leave at least half of the company in your ownership, as an entrepreneur, you will have control over your company to make important strategic decisions. Most private equity investors don’t want to run your company or take advantage of you. Instead, they just want to contribute to your business’s success.

### 2.  Private equity investors do not add value beyond their monetary investments.

While many people view private equity investors solely as sources of capital, this misconception is untrue. Most investors have expertise and experience in the various industries. Many experience come from past investments in successful companies and others from being entrepreneurs and chief officers themselves.  They have the know-how to advise businesses from an impartial outlook and to add value by bringing in fresh ideas and perspectives.

Investors also have a network of connections to help companies advance and develop strategic partnerships. An investor with a good understanding of the company that he or she invests in will do more than just invest money into a business. They will help grow the company’s value in a rational and sustainable approach.

### 3.  Once a private equity investor is ready to exit his or her investment, the business owner has to sell the company or take it public.

Business owners are not forced to sell their companies or take them public once a private equity investor decides to exit.  Private equity firms usually invest in companies with a goal of exiting within five to eight years. The private equity firm’s partners expect liquidity at a certain point in time. As a result, the firm cannot hold on to all investments forever. At this point, the business owner has several choices, including raising capital from a new private equity investor or a new partner

Avoiding these common misconceptions will allow you to focus on the positive benefits. Therefore, you can make better decisions about private equity investments.

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# Sharpe Ratio Definition

The sharpe ratio definition is the excess return or risk premium of a well diversified portfolio or investment per unit of risk. Measure sharpe ratio using standard deviation. You may also know this ratio as the reward to variability ratio or the reward to volatility ratio.

## Sharpe Ratio Explained

The sharpe ratio is a good measure for investors because it allows them to distinguish the amount of reward needed per unit of risk. This allows for risk averse investors to stay away from low reward high risk situation that they are uncomfortable with. The higher the ratio the better for an investor. It is also useful in establishing the ratio efficient frontier in which an investor can build a model for several different investments and build a portfolio that is exactly equal to the desired ratio. These efficient frontier models can distinguish down to the specific weights what an investor needs to do to build the desired portfolio.

## Sharpe Ratio Formula

Use the following sharpe ratio formula:

```SR = E(R-Rf)
σ```

Where:

R = asset return
Rf = Risk free return
E(R-Rf) = Expected return of the risk premium
σ = standard deviation of the risk premium

## Example

Tim is looking to invest in a stock that has an expected return of 12%. The risk free rate is 4%, and the standard deviation of the risk premium is 10%. Thus, the calculation is as follows:
Sharpe = (.12-.04)/.10 = .8

The .8 can be interpreted as meaning that for every unit of risk that you accept as an investor you will be taking on an additional one and a quarter amount of risk.

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# Subsequent Events Definition

The definition of a subsequent events are generally defined as events that occurs after the year end period but before the financial statements have been issued. A subsequent event falls underneath the disclosure principle and can be confusing to many accountants that encounter them. However, the codification provides guidance under ASC 855 subsequent events. This allows accountants to distinguish separate events and how to write subsequent events disclosure.

## Subsequent Events Meaning

The problem arises for companies because subsequent event accounting could dramatically alter an investor’s opinion. It might be misleading to issue the statements as they are at period end. There are generally two types of subsequent events.

1)The first is a recognized event whereas the second is a non-recognized event. Recognized or type 1 subsequent events are typically events that occurred at the financial statement date. But that may have concluded after the year end. The financial statements must then be altered to include this event because it would be misleading not to list the event.

2) Type 2 or non-recognized events are then events that were not ongoing and occurred after the year end. These accounting subsequent events should not be disclosed within the current financials, but a subsequent event footnote disclosure should be made in the financials so that investors know that the event did occur.

### Subsequent Events Examples

#### Type 1 event (recognized)

Honyota Inc., a car manufacturer, has had some ongoing litigation proceedings concerning the safety of its cars in the United States. Year end occurred a month ago but the financials have not been issued at this date, the litigations proceedings have finally concluded after months and Honyota will be required to pay \$50 million in damages to various customers around the U.S. Honyota has accrued for this event since the litigation proceedings began and has gone ahead and paid the amount needed. Then recognize the event as a type 1 event because this has been ongoing for months. In addition, conclude the final amount paid.

#### Type 2 event (non-recognized)

After year end, Welder supply has lost one of its customers due to bankruptcy. Welder Supply has not issued it statements yet. Owen, an accountant, is trying to determine if he should recognize this event in the year end financials issued within a few days. Owen determines that the company does not need to recognize the change in accounts receivable because Welder Supply had no indication that its customer was in financial distress. Therefore, Owen should not recognize the event in the year end financials. Owen should however make a subsequent event note disclosure within them stating the event that did occur to prevent litigation from presenting misleading statements.

Note: An event of this type would include a small customer that suddenly declared bankruptcy. And the company had no idea before the year end date. This would cause the accounts receivable to change as the company expects not to collect.

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# Securities Exchange Act of 1934

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 deals with the regulation of secondary market transactions, or outstanding securities in the market (which can be traded on a daily basis). The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulates this act.

## Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Meaning

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was established after the stock market crash of 1929 – the following Great Depression. The 1934 Securities Exchange Act is meant to provide meaningful and relevant information to the average investor. This ensures that the investor is not mislead in anyway so that they are able to make well informed decisions. The Securities Exchange Act regulations include the need for quarterly and annual audits by an accounting firm. These accounting firms then attest to the accuracy of the statements.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 thus ensures that there is no fraud that exist within the company. It also deals with insider trading. If an investor has information that is non-public in nature then, then under the 1934 Securities Exchange Act, he/she may not act on it until the information has gone public. The idea is to provide a fair and equal market so there are no unusual transactions to set the market adrift.

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# Subordinated Debt Definition

Subordinated debt is a security which has a residual claim upon a company’s assets, after the senior debt holders have had their claims satisfied.

## Meaning of Subordinated

Subordinated debt is usually taken on by a company who cannot reach better financing opportunities. Whereas, subordinated debentures often contain a higher interest rate due to the risky nature of the securities to investors. Investors would simply refuse to take on a security that has a residual claim on the assets unless the company were willing to pay more. This is also why many companies use this as a last option in financing because of the high costs involved.

### Subordinated Example

For example, Parent Co. made an acquisition of Subsidiary Co. a year ago in a leveraged buyout (LBO) for \$100 million. They were able to gain a loan from the bank with low interest rates at 5% for \$75 million, and was offered a Line of Credit for \$50 million. Parent Co. has recently had some trouble cutting costs and getting Subsidiary to run smoothly. Thus, they have used up the rest of its line of credit.

Parent Co. is looking to go public with an IPO soon. But they need financing now to stretch the company until it is able to provide a public offering. Therefore, Parent Co. receives subordinated debt at a rate of 8% for another \$50 million. This is at a higher cost to the company/. But they can use it to postpone the debt woes until the company is able to make a public offering in the market. They can then use equity money to pay off the subordinated securities as well as the line of credit.

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