Tag Archives | equity

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

See Also:
Cost of Capital
Cost of Capital Funding
Arbitrage Pricing Theory
APV Valuation
Capital Budgeting Methods
Discount Rates NPV
Required Rate of Return

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

The most popular method to calculate cost of equity is Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). Why? Because it displays the relationship between risk and expected return for a company’s assets. This model is used throughout financing for calculating expected returns for assets while including risk and cost of capital.

Cost of Equity

Also known as the required rate of return on common stock, define the cost of equity as the cost of raising funds from equity investors. It is by far the most challenging element in discount rate determination.

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Calculating Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) states that the expected return on an asset is related to its risk as measured by beta:

E(Ri) = Rf + ßi * (E(Rm) – Rf)

Or = Rf + ßi * (risk premium)


E(Ri) = the expected return on asset given its beta

Rf = the risk-free rate of return

E(Rm) = the expected return on the market portfolio

ßi = the asset’s sensitivity to returns on the market portfolio

E(Rm) – Rf = market risk premium, the expected return on the market minus the risk free rate.

Expected Return of an Asset

Therefore, the expected return on an asset given its beta is the risk-free rate plus a risk premium equal to beta times the market risk premium. Beta is always estimated based on an equity market index. Additionally, determine the beta of a company by the three following variables:

  1. The type business the company is in
  2. The degree of operating leverage of the company
  3. The company’s financial leverage

Risk-Free Rate of Return

Short-term government debt rate (such as a 30-day T-bill rate, or a long-term government bond yield to maturity) determines the risk-free rate of return. When cash flows come due, it is also determined. Define risk-free rate as the expected returns with certainty.

Risk Premium

Additionally, risk premium indicates the “extra return” demanded by investors for shifting their money from riskless investment to an average risk investment. It is also a function of how risk-averse investors are and how risky they perceive investment opportunities compared with a riskless investment.

Cost of Equity Calculation

For example, a company has a beta of 0.5, a historical risk premium of 6%, and a risk-free rate of 5.25%. Therefore, the required rate of return of this company according to the CAPM is: 5.25% + (0.5 * 6%) = 8.25%

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Originally published by Jim Wilkinson on July 23, 2013. 


Standard Chart of Accounts

See Also:
Chart of Accounts (COA)
Problems in Chart of Accounts Design
Complex Number for SGA Expenses

Standard Chart of Accounts

In accounting, a standard chart of accounts is a numbered list of the accounts that comprise a company’s general ledger. Furthermore, the company chart of accounts is basically a filing system for categorizing all of a company’s accounts as well as classifying all transactions according to the accounts they affect. The standard chart of accounts list of categories may include the following:

The standard chart of accounts is also called the uniform chart of accounts. Use a chart of accounts template to prepare the basic chart of accounts for any subsidiary companies or related entities. By doing so, you make consolidation easier.

Organize in Numerical System

Furthermore, a standard chart of accounts is organized according to a numerical system. Thus, each major category will begin with a certain number, and then the sub-categories within that major category will all begin with the same number. If assets are classified by numbers starting with the digit 1, then cash accounts might be labeled 101, accounts receivable might be labeled 102, inventory might be labeled 103, and so on. Whereas, if liabilities accounts are classified by numbers starting with the digit 2, then accounts payable might be labeled 201, short-term debt might be labeled 202, and so on.

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Number of Accounts Needed

Depending on the size of the company, the chart of accounts may include either few dozen accounts or a few thousand accounts. Whereas, if a company is more sophisticated, then the chart of accounts can be either paper-based or computer-based. In conclusion, the standard chart of account is useful for analyzing past transactions and using historical data to forecast future trends.

You can use the following example of chart of accounts to set up the general ledger of most companies. In addition, you may customize your COA to your industry by adding to the Inventory, Revenue and Cost of Goods Sold sections to the sample chart of accounts.


Refer to the following sample chart of accounts. Each company’s chart of accounts may look slightly different. But if you are starting from scratch, then the following is great place to start.


1010 CASH Operating Account
1020 CASH Debitors
1030 CASH Petty Cash


1210 A/REC Trade
1220 A/REC Trade Notes Receivable
1230 A/REC Installment Receivables
1240 A/REC Retainage Withheld
1290 A/REC Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts


1310 INV – Reserved
1320 INV – Work-in-Progress
1330 INV – Finished Goods
1340 INV – Reserved
1350 INV – Unbilled Cost & Fees
1390 INV – Reserve for Obsolescence


1410 PREPAID – Insurance
1420 PREPAID – Real Estate Taxes
1430 PREPAID – Repairs & Maintenance
1440 PREPAID – Rent
1450 PREPAID – Deposits


1510 PPE – Buildings
1520 PPE – Machinery & Equipment
1530 PPE – Vehicles
1540 PPE – Computer Equipment
1550 PPE – Furniture & Fixtures
1560 PPE – Leasehold Improvements


1610 ACCUM DEPR Buildings
1620 ACCUM DEPR Machinery & Equipment
1630 ACCUM DEPR Vehicles
1640 ACCUM DEPR Computer Equipment
1650 ACCUM DEPR Furniture & Fixtures
1660 ACCUM DEPR Leasehold Improvements


1710 NCA – Notes Receivable
1720 NCA – Installment Receivables
1730 NCA – Retainage Withheld




1910 Organization Costs
1920 Patents & Licenses
1930 Intangible Assets – Capitalized Software Costs




2110 A/P Trade
2120 A/P Accrued Accounts Payable
2130 A/P Retainage Withheld
2150 Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt
2160 Bank Notes Payable
2170 Construction Loans Payable


2210 Accrued – Payroll
2220 Accrued – Commissions
2230 Accrued – FICA
2240 Accrued – Unemployment Taxes
2250 Accrued – Workmen’s Comp
2260 Accrued – Medical Benefits
2270 Accrued – 401 K Company Match
2275 W/H – FICA
2280 W/H – Medical Benefits
2285 W/H – 401 K Employee Contribution


2310 Accrued – Rent
2320 Accrued – Interest
2330 Accrued – Property Taxes
2340 Accrued – Warranty Expense


2510 Accrued – Federal Income Taxes
2520 Accrued – State Income Taxes
2530 Accrued – Franchise Taxes
2540 Deferred – FIT Current
2550 Deferred – State Income Taxes




2710 LTD – Notes Payable
2720 LTD – Mortgages Payable
2730 LTD – Installment Notes Payable




3100 Common Stock
3200 Preferred Stock
3300 Paid in Capital
3400 Partners Capital
3500 Member Contributions
3900 Retained Earnings


4600 Interest Income
4700 Other Income
4800 Finance Charge Income
4900 Sales Returns and Allowances
4950 Sales Discounts


5700 Freight
5800 Inventory Adjustments
5900 Purchase Returns and Allowances
5950 Reserved


6010 Advertising Expense
6050 Amortization Expense
6100 Auto Expense
6150 Bad Debt Expense
6200 Bank Charges
6250 Cash Over and Short
6300 Commission Expense
6350 Depreciation Expense
6400 Employee Benefit Program
6550 Freight Expense
6600 Gifts Expense
6650 Insurance – General
6700 Interest Expense
6750 Professional Fees
6800 License Expense
6850 Maintenance Expense
6900 Meals and Entertainment
6950 Office Expense
7000 Payroll Taxes
7050 Printing
7150 Postage
7200 Rent
7250 Repairs Expense
7300 Salaries Expense
7350 Supplies Expense
7400 Taxes – FIT Expense
7500 Utilities Expense
7900 Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets

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standard chart of accounts

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 


Free Cash Flow Definition

See also:
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis
Valuation Methods
Free Cash Flow Analysis

Free Cash Flow Definition

The business is like a human body, the body needs blood, the business needs cash. Investor look at Free Cash Flow to make their decision for investment. Interestingly, it’s not a number you can come up easily. First, let’s look at the free cash flow definition. Many business owners, somehow, are not familiar with Free Cash Flow. The Free Cash Flow definition is cash generated by the company after deducting capital expenditures from its operating cash flow the amount of. In other words, after the company pays for employees, debts, expense, fixed assets, rent, plant, etc., whatever money you have got left (“left-over money“) is called Free Cash Flow.

FCF Example

For example, a company has $1 million cash flow from operating activities in its financial statement. However, they are spending more than $900,000 on purchasing property plants or replacing equipment. In this case, the investor will have to analyze the business to see if it was either a poor management decision or a high growth opportunity (i.e. more investment than cash on hand).

Even when a company makes positive Net Earnings, it doesn’t necessarily mean that company has Free Cash Flow.

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Why is Free Cash Flow Important?

As it mentioned above, cash keeps the business running. If your company has Free Cash Flow, then what should the company be spending the money on? They could either hire more employees, invest in other assets, issue dividends, or make more acquisition. Before you make the decision, there are 3 main reasons you would consider FCF as a competitive advantage to maintain the business growth rate.

Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE)

FCFE measures the Equity value, referred as “levered” cash flow. It’s the amount of money available for equity shareholders after paying all expenses, debts, reinvestment. Also, consider free cash flow to equity as an adjustment for debt cash flow.

Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF)

FCFF measures the enterprise value, referred to as “unlevered” cash flow. Free cash flow to firm shows available cash to all investor – both debt and equity. In an Unlevered Discounted Cash Flow analysis, you would use WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital).

Valuation using Free Cash Flow

Other than using DCF method (Discounted Cash Flow), use Free Cash Flow to estimate the present value of a business.

FCF = Present Value.

By calculating free cash flow, you can interpret discretionary cash flow of the company. If FCF is positive, then the company has many options where to put the money in. Whereas if FCF is negative, then you have to analyze if it’s a one-time issue or a recurring problem. If it’s constantly negative, then the company has to raise more money (debt or equity) or eventually has to restructure itself.

Free Cash Flow Formula

The free cash flow formula is very simple. Look at the Cash Flow Statement. Subtract Capital Expenditures from Operating Cash Flow.

Free Cash Flow = Cash Flow from Operation – Capital Expenditures

Operating Cash Flow

Operating cash flow is the amount of money required to fund a company’s normal operation. It’s usually in bold and always show before Financing and Investing Cash Flow. You can also refer to Operating Cash Flow as “Working Capital“.

 Capital Expenditures (CAPEX)

Find Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) in the Cash Flow Statement, under Cash Flow from Investing Activities. However, Capital Expenditures is sometimes listed as Purchase of Property & Equipment. Capital Expenditure is different from Operating Expense (OpEx).

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Shareholders’ Equity Definition

Shareholders’ Equity Definition

The Shareholders’ Equity Definition is one of the three primary components of the balance sheet: assets, liabilities, shareholders’ (or owners’) equity. These three components comprise the well-known accounting equation of assets = liabilities + shareholders’ equity. This equation is important when beginning to think about what shareholders’ equity means for a business.

The owners’ equity category includes two things: investments into the company and retained earnings from each period. The investments can be from when the company launched and from later points in time. The important part is recording the investment under the shareholders’ equity section on the balance sheet. These two combine to fill the gap between the value of a company’s assets and liabilities. Using this logic, you can see how it is equally important to know the value of your assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity. If any component is incomplete or inaccurate, the financials will not be complete.

Shareholders’ Equity Example

For example Company A started with a $100,000 investment from the sole owner. In the beginning, the owner’s equity account is equivalent to the owner’s investment. After one year of business, the company has $60,000 in net profit. The owner decides to pay $10,000 in dividends and sends the other $50,000 to retained earnings. Thus, the owner’s equity account grew by the same amount as the retained earnings for that period.

When discussing shareholders’ equity, it makes a difference whether the company is private/public or mature/startup. Private companies often use separate terms for things like stocks, owners’ equity, and dividends. Public companies have more regulations and shareholders to please, so the financials of public companies usually look different than those of a private company. It is important to know whether a company is mature or a startup when looking at the financials. For example, if a startup has a very large retained earnings account under owners’ equity, something is either incorrect or extraordinary. Similarly, if a mature company’s shareholders’ equity is largely composed of owner investments and new partners’ investments, it could represent a struggling business. If the business is not creating enough net profit to reinvest into the company, it would have more owner investments than retained earnings.Shareholders' Equity Definition

See also:
Balance the Balance Sheet
Accounting Department Efficiencies
Balancing the Balance Sheet
Financial Assets
Current Liabilities


ROE (Return on Equity)

See Also:
Return On Equity Example
Return on Asset
Financial Leverage
Gross Profit Margin Ratio Analysis
Return on Equity Analysis
Fixed Asset Turnover Analysis

Return on Equity (ROE)

The return on equity, or ROE, is defined as the amount of profit or net income a company earns per investment dollar. It reveals how much profit a company earns with the money shareholders have invested. The investment dollars differ in that it only accounts for common shareholders. This is often beneficial because it allows companies and investors alike to see what sort of return the voting shareholders are getting, if preferred, and other types of shares that are not counted.

The term can be confusing as it has various aliases. For example, Return on Equity used to be called Return on Common Equity; however, ROCE now refers to Return on Capital Employed. Return on Equity is also the equivalent to Return on Net Worth (RONW).

Return on Equity Explanation (ROE) 

ROE is a measure of how well a company uses its investment dollars to generate profits; often times, it is more important to a shareholder than return on investment (ROI). It tells common stock investors how effectively their capital is being reinvested. For example, a company with high return on equity (ROE) is more successful in generating cash internally. Thus, investors are always looking for companies with high and growing returns on common equity. However, not all high ROE companies make good investments. Instead, the better benchmark is to compare a company’s return on common equity with its industry average. The higher the ratio, the better the company.

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Return on Equity (ROE) Formula

The return on equity formula is as follows:

ROE = Net Income (NI)/ Average Shareholder’s Equity

The Net Income accounts for the full fiscal year (prior to dividends paid to common stock holders and after dividends paid to preferred stock holders).

Find the average shareholder’s equity by combining the beginning common stock for the year, on the balance sheet, and the ending common stock value. Then divide these two values by two for the average amount in the year and do not include preferred shares.

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Why Venture Capital?

See Also:
The Dilemma of Financing a Start-up Company
Angel Investor
Mezzanine Debt Financing
What is a Term Sheet
Working Capital

Why Venture Capital?

Why venture capital versus other forms of equity? For one, VC partners tend to be experienced entrepreneurs themselves who have taken a startup from inception to an exit through an IPO or private sale once or more. They can help an entrepreneur avoid common mistakes and also help position the company as it nears an exit opportunity.

They also tend to have a large number of industry contacts, which can make it easier to strike deals with suppliers and customers, as well as weather the ups and downs within a given market.

It should be noted that most VC backed startups fail, but the ones that do succeed can do so spectacularly, as a host of VC backed firms, especially in tech, have done so since 1995, such as eBay, Yahoo!, and Google.

But one must know why they believe they need to bring in a VC investor. It can be costly and business history is replete with examples of entrepreneurs who took their startup from an idea on the back of an envelope into some of the largest firms in the world without any outside equity partners.

What is Venture Capital?

Venture capital is an expensive form of financing for an entrepreneur. With most VC funds expecting compounded annual returns in excess of 25% from their investments, an entrepreneur can find themselves giving up a substantial part of their equity in the company, not to mention the loss of control and a new demanding partner to contend with. So why do it?

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Singapore Stock Exchange (SGX)

Singapore Stock Exchange (SGX)

A merger between the Stock Exchange of Singapore and the Singapore International Monetary Exchange formed the Singapore Stock Exchange (SGX) in 1999. Furthermore, it is one of the largest Asian exchanges in terms of market capitalization and trading volume.

Singapore Stock Exchange (SGX) Meaning

The SGX is well known for its derivatives trading in addition to its equity trading. The make-up of the SGX market is approximately 25% in derivatives while the other 75% in equities. It also has approximately 775 companies listed and the SGX market capitalization is around 650 billion in Singapore Dollars. The SGX index is the Straits Times Index, and is considered to be a key indicator of the Asian markets. The Straits Times takes the 30 largest companies and market-value weights these stocks.

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See Also:
Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX)
Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX)
Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE)
Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE)
Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)