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7 C’s of Banking

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5 Cs of Credit
Line of Credit
Credit Rating Agencies
How Important is Personal Credit in Negotiating a Commercial Loan?
Improve Your Credit Score

7 C’s of Banking

Every knows the 5 C’s of Banking. But what are the 7 C’s of Banking? Recently, I spoke to students at the University of Houston in the Wolff Center for Entrepreneurship on the topic of Dealing with Lenders. During the question and answer portion of the program, a student asked me “What do lenders really look at when they are deciding whether or not to approve a loan?”

7 C’s of Credit: Condition

Is there a logical need for the funds? Does it make business sense? Are the funds to be used to grow an existing and proven business product or service business or to be used for an unproven one?

7 C’s of Credit: Collateral

Is the proposed collateral sufficient? What type of value does it have? Is there a secondary market for it? The lender wants to know, in the event of a default, that it will be likely to recoup a significant portion of the amount lent.

7 C’s of Credit: Credit

For smaller enterprises, the personal credit score of the individual owner(s) will be reviewed. As with personal loans, such as an auto or mortgage loan, the bank is looking for evidence of a history of you paying your lenders on time. For larger companies, the bank will consult Dun & Bradstreet reports for evidence of the timely payment of vendors and other creditors.

7 C’s of Credit: Character

What do those who have done business with the prospective borrower have to say about its business practices? A bank will typically ask the applicant for a list of references, such as three customers and three vendors to contact.

7 C’s of Credit: Capacity

Does the borrower have the wherewithal to pay the debt service? Is it generating enough free cash flow to reasonably assure timely interest payments and ultimately the repayment of the principal balance?

Due to the expanding levels of transnational business and cross-border lending over the last few decades, you need to discuss the two new C’s.

7 C’s of Credit: Currency

What is the recent history and outlook of the primary currency in which the company will conduct its operations? Does the currency exhibit a history or likelihood of losing its value? The more stable the currency, the more attractive the loan request will be to a lender.

7 C’s of Credit: Country

Does the borrower conduct a significant portion of its operations in a country with a history of political instability? Is there the possibility of an expropriation of the borrower’s assets due to a change in the country’s government? Is the country’s current political and legal system hostile to the interests of foreign countries? There are two factors that would make the bank more likely to be willing to make the loan, including the following:

  • The more established the country’s government is
  • The more a legal system has demonstrated a reverence for bother property rights and the rights of creditors

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bank lending cycle

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7 C's of banking

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Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE)

See Also:
Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE)
National Stock Exchange of India (NSE)
Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
Frankfurt Stock Exchange (FSE)
Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX)

Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE)

The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) is the third largest exchange in terms of market capitalization. The exchange is currently not open to all foreign investors.

Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) Meaning

The Shanghai Stock Exchange was formed in the 1842 as one of the first to be established in Asia and the first in China. The SSE Exchange trades in bonds, funds, and two classes of stock. The two types of stock are the Class A and Class B stock. At first the Class A stock was limited to Chinese Investors while the Class B remained open to all investors. However, after reforms the SSE changed its format slightly allowing a few foreign investors to invest in the Class A stock with several limitations. The class B stock remained open to all foreign and domestic investors after the reformation. The Class A stock is also currently listed with the local Yuan currency while Class B is listed under the U.S. dollar. The SSE exchange main indexes are the SSE 180 index and the SSE 50.

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shanghai stock exchange (sse)

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Stagflation

See Also:
Economic Indicators
Balance of Payments
Supply and Demand Elasticity
The Feds Beige Book
What are the Twin Deficits?

Stagflation Definition

In economics, stagflation refers to the combination of stagnation and inflation. Stagnation refers to slowing economic growth or recession. It is a period of low gross domestic product and high unemployment. Inflation refers to rising consumer prices. The combination of these two conditions makes for a troubled economy.

The term stagflation was first used by economists in the 1970s when both the U.S. and the U.K. were experiencing simultaneous stagnation and inflation. At that time much of the economic trouble was due to rising oil prices which can contribute to both inflation and stagnation.

Central Banks and Stagflation

Central banks have certain tools for counteracting unfavorable economic conditions. They can implement monetary policy tools to try to influence the conditions of the economy. Central banks can raise or lower interest rates, raise or lower reserve requirements, and buy or sell currency to influence money supply.

For example, if inflation is rising, a central bank can raise interest rates, raise reserve requirements, or purchase currency to reduce the money supply in an attempt to curb inflation.

And during a period of stagnation, if the economy is slowing down, the central bank can lower interest rates in an attempt to increase the money supply and stimulate business and economic activity.

Stagflation Dilemma

However, when inflation and stagnation occur simultaneously, the tools of the central bank are not so simple to implement. For example, during a period of stagflation, a central bank could raise interest rates to fight inflation. But this would hurt the struggling economy. And the central bank could lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, but this would exacerbate inflation.

So one of the main reasons stagflation is such a problem is that central bank monetary policy is essentially unable to ameliorate the unfavorable economic conditions. Trying to fix one half of the problem only makes the other half of the problem worse. Additionally, it doesn’t matter which side of the problem they attempt to correct or influence.

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Present Value (PV)

See Also:
Future Value
Adjusted Present Value (APV)
Net Present Value Method
Investment Analysis
Discount Rate

Present Value (PV) Definition

The present value is simply the value of future dollars or currency in present day terms. The present value is simply answering the question how much a dollar in the future is worth today.

Present Value (PV) Explanation

The present value is often used in valuation to discount projections that companies make about themselves so they can figure out how much the company stock price is or maybe its equity value. The present value becomes useful because of inflation. If inflation were to increase at an increasing rate then the company would see the present day dollar as less valuable to them.

Present Value (PV) Formula

The present value formula is as follows:
PV = FV/((1 + i)n)

Where:
PV = Present Value
FV = Future Value
i = rate
n = number of years or periods

Present Value (PV) Example

Jim Bob has just won the lottery. He has the choice of accepting the $2 million now, or he can accept $1 million now and another $2 million 5 years from now. Which of the choices should Jim Bob take? Assume a rate of 8%.

Option #1 PV = $2 million

Option #2 PV = $500,000 + $1,361,166 = 1,861,166

PV calculation:
PV = 2 million/((1+.08)5) = $1,361,166

Option #1 is better because it is worth more to you today than the present payment plus the payment at the end.

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Present Value (PV)

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New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

See Also:
National Stock Exchange of India (NSE)
Proprietary Trading
Coupon Rate Bond
Currency Exchange Rates

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Definition

Located in New York City, the New York Stock Exchange is the world’s largest exchange according to its market capitalization around $12.5 million. It is an exchange for financial items like stocks, bonds, currency, etc.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Meaning

The NYSE exchange was founded in the year 1817 to ease the exchange for transactions. This stock exchange contains several different indexes like the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the NYSE composite. The NYSE composite is not as widely used, but the Dow Jones is considered one of the leading indicators of how well the market is doing as a whole. This is because the Dow Jones measures how well some of the largest companies in the world are performing. In order to stay current with the NASDAQ and grow internationally, the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) acquired Archipelago in 2005, and then went into a merger with Euronext in early 2007. These two moves brought the NYSE up to date with electronic trading and it also established the NYSE as a world player.

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Investment Risk

See Also:
Hedging Risk
Risk Premium
Business Risk
Interest Rate Risk
Commercial Risk

Investment Risk Definition

The investment risk definition is the risk of a particular investment. Furthermore, an investment risk assessment usually contains several different forms ranging from interest rate risks to currency risks.

Investment Risk Meaning

Investment risk contains several different measures, including the following:

Market Risk

This is the risk associated within a market or index like the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones. There are currently two types of market risk. The first is the unsystematic risk. It can be diversified away in a well-managed portfolio. Then the other is systematic risk. Use it to describe factors that deal with the entire economy or an index which are simply inherent when investing.

Interest Rate Risk

This is the risk associated with bond and debt markets. Specifically the ways in which the interest rates change in the market or what is better known as the yield to maturity.

Currency Risk

Currency is the risk associated with an investment if it is denominated in another currency. The risk here is that the exchange rates change. In some cases it may benefit the investor, but in others, it can really hurt.

Liquidity Risk

This is the risk associated with the ease an investor can convert that particular investment into cash. For example, land is a lot harder to turn into cash over a very liquid asset, such as commercial paper. This is not normally a problem unless an investor needs to meet short term obligations.

Financial Risk

This is the risk that there is something fundamentally wrong in the financials of a company. The investor may not see that risk. Furthermore, this type of risk is normally associated with scandals such as Enron or Worldcom.

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Investment risk

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What is Deflation?

What is Deflation?

What is deflation? Deflation is the decline in the price for goods and services. It can also be referred to as the increase in the value of real money. In other words, it’s the value that the current currency will go up per unit of goods or services.

Deflation Explained

Deflation often occurs when the demand for goods or services drops. As this happens, the price of the current supply will often drop in order to meet demand. Deflation economics often happen during large recessions or depression times. Furthermore, deflation should also not be confused with the term disinflation which refers to a slowing effect of inflation or a slow increase in the price of goods and services.

Deflation Examples

Some common examples of when deflation has occurred are times like the Panic of 1837, the Civil War, as well as the Great Depression.

The Panic of 1837 was the first major time that deflation occurred as people rushed to banks there was an overall drop in the money supply as well a major decrease in the price of goods and services.

During the Civil War, there was another era of deflation as the United States set the dollar on a gold standard and reduced the amount of money printed during the war. This caused an overall drop in the money supply and therefore an overall drop in the prices.

Finally, the Great Depression was a time in which many banks failed and the ability to gain money became difficult thus causing deflation to occur and the price of goods to fall dramatically. This period of deflation is probably the most dramatic because of the time in which it took to climb back to normal levels of inflation.

what is deflation?

See Also:
What is Inflation?
Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS)
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Supply and Demand Elasticity
Economic Indicators

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