Tag Archives | competition

Mixed Economy

See Also:
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)
Economic Production Run (EPR)
Accounting Income vs. Economic Income
Feasibility Study
Economic Value Added

Mixed Economy Definition

The mixed economy definition is an economy where both the private market and the government control the factors of production. It is the most common form of economy that exists in the world today. All of the major developed and developing nations are a mixed economy, as well as many of the smaller developed and developing nations. This is due to the fact that a completely capitalist economy, for example, has never existed. The term mixed economy is another name for dual economy.

Mixed Economy Explanation

A mixed economy is an economy which has government restrictions on some but not all of the economic factors. As a result, it is an important term in macroeconomics. This is because mixed economy countries are the most prevalent in the world.

In our mixed economy, United States government controls infrastructure, social services, and other factors. Outside of this, industries in the United States are more of a market economy, where goods and services are provided based on demand and price. Laws placed on them restrict the markets.

In the mixed economy system outside of the US, government decides what is best controlled by the free market. In situations believed to need outside assistance, government steps in to control industries with regulations or total state monopoly. Using the USA as another example, the energy industry was once a state monopoly. This restriction has since been lifted and competition has driven the price of energy down.

Pros and Cons

Mixed economy pros and cons differ from person to person. Some believe that government needs to control factors to avoid corruption and exorbitant prices on basic necessities. Whereas, others believe that the free market is the only method which moves fast enough to deal with the changes of consumers. The truth lies, surely, somewhere in between. Many economists argue that advantages are best utilized by using the government as a temporary solution, allowing the free market to make long term decisions.

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Mixed Economy

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Market Dynamics

See Also:
Asset Market Value vs Asset Book Value
Efficient Market Theory
Market Positioning
Marking-to-Market
Business Cycle
Market Segmentation
Brand Equity

Market Dynamics Definition

Market dynamics, defined as the factors which effect the supply and demand of products in a market, are as important to economics as they are to practical business application. Many economists established market dynamics. Arguably, they are most developed in Porter’s five forces of competition.

Market Dynamics Meaning

Market dynamics means the factors that effect a market. From the theory of economics they would be supply, demand, price, quantity, and other specific terms. From a business standpoint, market dynamics are the factors that effect the business model which involves the applying party. In comparison, the dynamics may be the price of a barrel of crude, total oil production, total national or international stockpiles of oil, the price of other energy commodities, and more for an oil firm. Whereas for a web 2.0 business, a social network for example, market dynamics analytics may be the total amount of free time spent online for both national and international users, amount of money spent online each year, growth of online advertising, and more.

For a prudent business, market dynamics are included in the market analysis of their business plan. Furthermore, these factors affect the business so much that it would be neglectful to exclude them. In conclusion, market dynamics play an important role in the marketing plan of a business. They may also play an important role in other areas such as cost of goods sold, distribution, logistics, and more.

Market Dynamics Example

Charlotte is writing a marketing plan for her new business. Charlotte sees a real need in the fashion industry for high quality accessories like purses and necklaces. Her experience in retail gives her a strong base to refer back to.

To complete the marketing plan she must complete a competitive and industry analysis. Essentially, she needs to assemble a market dynamics analysis for the fashion industry, with respect to accessories. Then she needs to understand them so she can fill a space for customers not being served.

Charlotte starts with the industry analysis. She looks at a number of statistics: consumer spending rate, retail growth, growth of the fashion industry, growth of brick and mortar business sales, and the competencies of wholesalers. Here, she is assembling market dynamics in order to find whether the market can support her business. She knows this an important foundation for her idea.

Next, Charlotte performs a competitive analysis. She finds all competitors and similar businesses. Then, she analyzes their strengths, weaknesses, and the perception of these companies to the average consumer. From this she realizes a matter of key importance: though clothing, cosmetics, and other stores exist there is no provider for the accessories which complete an outfit. She is satisfied and resolves to continue research to keep up to pace with her industry.

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Market Dynamics

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Market Dynamics

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Intensity of Rivalry (one of Porter’s Five Forces)

See also:
Porter’s Five Forces of Competition
Threat of New Entrants
Supplier Power
Buyer Bargaining Power
Threat of Substitutes
Complementors (Sixth Force)

Porter’s Intensity of Rivalry Definition

The intensity of rivalry among competitors in an industry refers to the extent to which firms within an industry put pressure on one another and limit each other’s profit potential. If rivalry is fierce, then competitors are trying to steal profit and market share from one another. As a result, this reduces profit potential for all firms within the industry. According to Porter’s 5 forces framework, the intensity of rivalry among firms is one of the main forces that shape the competitive structure of an industry.

Porter’s intensity of rivalry in an industry affects the competitive environment and influences the ability of existing firms to achieve profitability. For example, high intensity of rivalry means competitors are aggressively targeting each other’s markets and aggressively pricing products. This represents potential costs to all competitors within the industry.

High intensity of competitive rivalry can make an industry more competitive and thus decrease profit potential for the existing firms. In comparison, low intensity of competitive rivalry makes an industry less competitive. It also increases profit potential for the existing firms.


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Porter’s Intensity of Rivalry Determining Factors

Several factors determine the intensity of competitive rivalry in an industry, whether it increases or decrease it.

Porter’s Rivalry Intensity Increased

If the industry consists of numerous competitors, then Porter rivalry will be more intense. Whereas if the competitors are of equal size or market share, then the intensity of rivalry will increase. The intensity of rivalry will be high if industry growth is slow. If the industry’s fixed costs are high, then competitive rivalry will be intense. Additionally, rivalry will be intense if the industry’s products are undifferentiated or are commodities. If brand loyalty is insignificant and consumer switching costs are low, then this will intensify industry rivalry. Industry rivalry will be intense if competitors are strategically diverse – which means that they position themselves differently from other competitors. Then an industry with excess production capacity will have greater rivalry among competitors. And finally, high exit barriers – costs or losses incurred as a result of ceasing operations – will cause intensity of rivalry among industry firms to increase.

Porter’s Rivalry Intensity Decreased

And of course, if the opposite is true for any of these factors, the intensity of Porter rivalry among competitors will be low. For example, the following indicates that the Porter intensity of rivalry among existing firms is low:

Porter’s Intensity of Rivalry Analysis

When analyzing a given industry, all of the aforementioned factors regarding the intensity of competitive rivalry Porter placed among existing competitors may not apply. But some, if not many, then certainly will. And of the factors that do apply, some may indicate high intensity of rivalry and some may indicate low intensity of rivalry; however, the results will not always be straightforward. As a result, consider the nuances of the analysis and the particular circumstances of the given firm and industry when using the data to evaluate the competitive structure and profit potential of a market.

Intensity of Rivalry is High if…

If any of the following occurs, then intensity of rivalry is high.

  • Competitors are numerous
  • Industry growth is slow
  • Fixed costs are high
  • Competitors have equal size
  • Products are undifferentiated
  • Brand loyalty is insignificant
  • Consumer switching costs are low
  • Competitors have equal market share
  • Competitors are strategically diverse
  • There is excess production capacity
  • Exit barriers are high

Intensity of Rivalry is Low if…

If any of the following occurs, then it may indicate that the intensity of rivalry is low.

  • Competitors are few
  • Unequal size among competitors
  • Competitors have unequal market share
  • Industry growth is fast
  • Fixed costs are low
  • Products are differentiated
  • Brand loyalty is significant
  • Consumer switching costs are high
  • Competitors are not strategically diverse
  • There is no excess production capacity
  • Exit barriers are low

Porter’s Intensity of Rivalry Interpretation

When conducting Porter’s 5 forces industry analysis, low intensity of rivalry makes an industry more attractive and increases profit potential for the firms already competing within that industry. In comparison, high intensity of rivalry makes an industry less attractive and decreases profit potential for the firms already competing within that industry. The intensity of rivalry among existing firms is one of the factors to consider when analyzing the structural environment of an industry using Porter’s 5 forces framework.

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Intensity of rivalry

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Intensity of rivalry

Sources on Porter’s Intensity of Rivalry

Harrison, Jeffrey S., Michael A. Hitt, Robert E. Hoskisson, R. Duane Ireland. (2008) “Competing for Advantage”, Thomson South-Western, United States, 2008.

Porter, M.E. (1979) “How competitive forces shape strategy”, Harvard Business Review, March/April 1979.

Porter, M.E. (1980) “Competitive Strategy”, The Free Press, New York, 1980.

Porter, M.E. (1985) “Competitive Advantage”, The Free Press, New York, 1985.

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Complementors (Sixth Force of Porter’s Five Forces)

See also:
Porter’s Five Forces of Competition
Threat of New Entrants
Supplier Power
Buyer Bargaining Power
Threat of Substitutes
Intensity of Rivalry

Porter’s Sixth Force Definition

Complementors, Porter’s sixth force, are companies or entities that sell or offer goods or services that are compatible with, or complementary to, the goods or services produced and sold in a given industry. Complementary goods offer more value to the consumer together than apart. When one product or service complements another there exists a condition called complementarity; a sort of commercial symbiosis. Complementors are often considered the sixth force of Porter’s industry analysis framework. The presence of Porter’s complementors can influence the competitive structure of an industry.

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Porter’s Complementors Analysis

Porter’s six forces provide a method for industry analysis. The presence of the sixth force of Porter, complementors, can benefit or hurt the firms competing in an industry, depending on the circumstances. If business is booming for the complementors, then this could positively affect the business of the firms in the given industry. On the other hand, if business is slow for the complementors, this could adversely affect the business of the firms in the given industry. So, complementors and complementary goods do not necessarily increase or decrease the competitiveness of an industry, they merely add another layer to the structural complexity of the competitive environment.

Sixth force of Porter’s- Example

According to Porter’s six forces, complementary goods offer more value to the consumer together than apart. When one product or service complements another, there exists a condition called complementarity. For illustrative purposes, please consider the following complement examples.

A very simple example of complementary goods, the sixth force of Porter’s framework, is the hotdog and the hotdog bun. A normal consumer prefers to eat a hotdog in a hotdog bun. Rarely would a consumer purchase hotdogs without also purchasing hotdog buns, and rarely would a consumer purchase hotdog buns without also purchasing hotdogs. Under the six forces model Porter coined, these two products are complementary.

In the six forces of competition, an example of complementary industries is the tourism industry and the airline industry. When a consumer heads to a tourist destination, he or she often gets there on an airplane. Similarly, whenever a consumer travels on an airplane, that consumer is most likely going to visit a destination which is a part of the tourism industry, such as a hotel or a rental car agency. These two industries are proved complementary by the six forces analysis.

Porters sixth force has become a central theory to in business management and is commonly discussed to this day. As you use Porter’s sixth force of competition to shape profit potential, it’s important to expand analysis by evaluating the entire external environment. Download the free External Analysis whitepaper to overcome obstacles and be prepared to react to external forces.

complementors

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Recession Strategies for Business

Once you find yourself in a recession your first goal is to stabilize your operations. But having achieved that goal you need to look beyond the present and develop a longer term strategy. Our goal for this recession is to “come out of the recession better and stronger than we went in!”

Recession Strategies for Business

How do you do that? The answer is in improving your capabilities in the following areas. We immediately began improving our marketing efforts and results. While cutting expenses in other areas we increased our marketing efforts and budget dollars. We began to increase the frequency and improve the quality of our marketing techniques with the goal of being in a better position to compete when the economy came back.

The next area we invested in was improving and documenting our systems. We documented our best practices and began to institutionalized them throughout the organization. This exercise led to increase training of our employees. We took advantage of the resulting down time to train and develop new skills for our staff.

Finally, all of this combined effort led to the development of new products that could be sold to our customer base. We are now generating sales with less expensive products that are needed in the recession.

So what is your company doing to position themselves for the recovery? Are you going to come out of the recession leapfrogging your competition or playing catch up? When you find your business slow are you just taking time off instead of investing in yourself and your company? The success of tomorrow rests on the efforts of today!

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Recession Strategies

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