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Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

See Also:
Cost of Capital
Cost of Capital Funding
Arbitrage Pricing Theory
APV Valuation
Capital Budgeting Methods
Discount Rates NPV
Required Rate of Return

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

The most popular method to calculate cost of equity is Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). Why? Because it displays the relationship between risk and expected return for a company’s assets. This model is used throughout financing for calculating expected returns for assets while including risk and cost of capital.

Cost of Equity

Also known as the required rate of return on common stock, define the cost of equity as the cost of raising funds from equity investors. It is by far the most challenging element in discount rate determination.


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Calculating Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) states that the expected return on an asset is related to its risk as measured by beta:

E(Ri) = Rf + ßi * (E(Rm) – Rf)

Or = Rf + ßi * (risk premium)

Where

E(Ri) = the expected return on asset given its beta

Rf = the risk-free rate of return

E(Rm) = the expected return on the market portfolio

ßi = the asset’s sensitivity to returns on the market portfolio

E(Rm) – Rf = market risk premium, the expected return on the market minus the risk free rate.

Expected Return of an Asset

Therefore, the expected return on an asset given its beta is the risk-free rate plus a risk premium equal to beta times the market risk premium. Beta is always estimated based on an equity market index. Additionally, determine the beta of a company by the three following variables:

  1. The type business the company is in
  2. The degree of operating leverage of the company
  3. The company’s financial leverage

Risk-Free Rate of Return

Short-term government debt rate (such as a 30-day T-bill rate, or a long-term government bond yield to maturity) determines the risk-free rate of return. When cash flows come due, it is also determined. Define risk-free rate as the expected returns with certainty.

Risk Premium

Additionally, risk premium indicates the “extra return” demanded by investors for shifting their money from riskless investment to an average risk investment. It is also a function of how risk-averse investors are and how risky they perceive investment opportunities compared with a riskless investment.

Cost of Equity Calculation

For example, a company has a beta of 0.5, a historical risk premium of 6%, and a risk-free rate of 5.25%. Therefore, the required rate of return of this company according to the CAPM is: 5.25% + (0.5 * 6%) = 8.25%

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Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

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Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

Originally published by Jim Wilkinson on July 23, 2013. 

The Importance of Knowing Your Leadership Competencies

Knowing Your Leadership Competencies, unique ability

Two weeks ago, our team celebrated 1 year since the acquisition of The Strategic CFO. In the past 12 months, we’ve grown significantly in the number of team members and clients. In our meeting, I put the quote up on the screen…
“Life is simple… People complicate it.”
Everyone laughed because it is so true.
As we shared stories, challenges, successes, etc. in my team meeting, I asked them if they knew what they were competent and incompetent at.
Everyone is incompetent at something.
Financial leaders need to understand the importance of knowing your leadership competencies.
Truly successful people spend 80-90% of their time utilizing their excellent and unique abilities and delegate the rest.

The Importance of Knowing Your Leadership Competencies

Before we begin, I want to define leadership. It’s the ability to guide, direct, and influence people. There are four types of ability that a leader must know about themselves. Those include the following:

  1. Incompetent
  2. Competent
  3. Excellent
  4. Unique Ability

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Know What Your Incompetencies Are

First, you need to know what your incompetencies are. Incompetent indicates the activities that you are not good at and the things that you don’t do well. Everyone is incompetent at something. Some incompetencies could be translating the numbers to something the CEO could use to make decisions, knowing the ins and outs of your accounting system, or working with technology. Before you can start to figure out what you are competent at, you need to know what you are not good at.

Write those incompetencies down. If you are asked to do work in those areas, either defer or delegate. It is not worth your time to invest in those areas when they are not profitable.

Know What Your Competencies Are

Then identify your competencies; these are activities that you are okay at, but the majority of others are better. In other words, the general population is good at that thing. For example, all accountants will know where assets, liabilities, and equity go on the balance sheet.

What Are You Excellent At?

After you have identified your incompetencies and competencies, then ask yourself… “What are you excellent at?” This refers to the activities that you excel at, but so do a few others. If you have a knack for knowing where to unlock cash after just looking at the financial statements, then it may be time to focus more of your energy there. Not everyone will have this skill though.

Know Your Unique Ability

Finally, know your unique ability. Your unique ability are the abilities only you possess. These are activities that drive value for yourself and others. In addition, your unique ability must be valued by society.

Strategic Coach outlines the four areas that you need to look at when identifying your unique ability:

  • Passion
  • Superior Skill
  • Energy
  • Never-Ending Improvement
So, how do you tell the difference between your unique abilities and your incompetence activities? Your unique ability gives you energy and your incompetence zaps your energy!

Inventory of Role

If you want to be really effective as a CFO and a financial leader, then you need to know what you are already doing and what your CEO wants more of. In our Financial Leadership Workshop, we walk our participants through an extensive inventory of role. Some of the areas that CEOs wants more from there financial leaders include:

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The Role of the CFO

While the CEO must balance the vision, growth, implementation, cash, and profitability of the company, the role of the CFO is to compliment the skills and unique abilities of the entrepreneur. You would not find Steve Jobs or Jeff Bezos in the accounting department, but they sure need(ed) support from their financial leader to make innovation happen.

To learn other ways to be more effective in your role as the financial leader, click here to access our most popular whitepaper – the 7 Habits of Highly Effective CFOs.

Knowing Your Leadership Competencies, unique ability

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Knowing Your Leadership Competencies, unique ability

Limited Liability Company (LLC)

See Also:
S Corporation
General Partnership
Limited Partnership
Partnership
Sole Proprietorship
Role of a Company Back Office

Limited Liability Company (LLC) Definition

A Limited Liability Company or LLC is a business form which provides limited liability much like a corporation. There can be an unlimited number of members to the company. There are also many tax benefits that emerge from forming this type of business.

Limited Liability Company (LLC) Meaning

A Limited Liability Company means that it contains the same barrier to personal liability for actions by an employee or member of the company unless there is a case of fraud or gross negligence. Members are unlimited, but there are limitations in that all members must be domestic. In addition, a member can be anything like a private equity group, corporation, or any individual as long as they are an American citizen.


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Advantages of a Limited Liability Company (LLC)

Limited Liability Company (LLC) advantages range from taxes to the limited exposure by members discussed above. There are tax benefits in that an LLC has the choice of being taxed like a partnership or a corporation. The first option means that the profits and losses will flow through to the members, but this all depends on ownership percentages or an agreement by contract. Therefore, the IRS only taxes members once at the individual level. An LLC can choose to be taxed as a corporation as well. This means that the company would have certain salaries for its members and the actual entity will taxed as a whole.

Another large benefit of the Limited Liability Company is the ability of the company to own its own intellectual property. Because this is a private form, there is also greater protection from being acquired by other companies. This allows the company to grow at its own pace and make decisions without having to worry about pursuit of other companies.

Disadvantages of a Limited Liability Company (LLC)

One disadvantage of an LLC is the cost; it’s typically more expensive to operate than partnerships and/or proprietorships. There are annual state fees when you operate an LLC. In addition, banks usually have higher fees for LLCs than they do for other entities.

Another disadvantage is that you need to separate all records – business vs. personal. The money, meeting minutes, structure, and records all needs to be separate.

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Limited Liability Company

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Limited Liability Company

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

Journal Entries (JEs)

See Also:
Double Entry Bookkeeping
Journal Entries For Factoring Receivables
Accounting Principles
Accounting Concepts
Adjusting Entries
Role of a Company Back Office

Journal Entries Definition

A journal entry is a recording of a transaction into a journal like the general journal or another subsidiary journal. Journal entries for accounting require that there be a debit and a credit in equal amounts. Oftentimes, there is an explanation that will go along with this to explain the transaction.

Journal Entries Meaning

A journal entry means that a transaction has taken place whether it is a sale to a customer, buying goods from a supplier, or building a warehouse. These transactions affect both the balance sheet and income statement.

As said before, journal entry accounting requires that there be an equal debit and credit for every transaction. This is also known as double entry bookkeeping. Many journal accounts have a normal balance. For example, assets have a normal debit balance if the account is increased and it is a credit if it is decreased.


Journal Entries Example

The following example will use both balance sheet and income statement accounts to show how they work.

Bill has been looking for a certain toy for his son. He walks into Toys Inc. to find it. After some searching, Bill finds a GI Joe for $14 and buys it to take home to his son. The toy cost Toys Inc. $9 to get the toy from its supplier. Thus, Toys inc. will record the following journal entries into the Sales Journal:

Cash………….$14

Sales Revenue…………..$14

COGS………….$9

Inventory…………………..$9

 


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Journal Entries

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Journal Entries

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

Standard Chart of Accounts

See Also:
Chart of Accounts (COA)
Problems in Chart of Accounts Design
Complex Number for SGA Expenses
Role of a Company Back Office

Standard Chart of Accounts

In accounting, a standard chart of accounts is a numbered list of the accounts that comprise a company’s general ledger. Furthermore, the company chart of accounts is basically a filing system for categorizing all of a company’s accounts as well as classifying all transactions according to the accounts they affect. The standard chart of accounts list of categories may include the following:

The standard chart of accounts is also called the uniform chart of accounts. Use a chart of accounts template to prepare the basic chart of accounts for any subsidiary companies or related entities. By doing so, you make consolidation easier.

Organize in Numerical System

Furthermore, a standard chart of accounts is organized according to a numerical system. Thus, each major category will begin with a certain number, and then the sub-categories within that major category will all begin with the same number. If assets are classified by numbers starting with the digit 1, then cash accounts might be labeled 101, accounts receivable might be labeled 102, inventory might be labeled 103, and so on. Whereas, if liabilities accounts are classified by numbers starting with the digit 2, then accounts payable might be labeled 201, short-term debt might be labeled 202, and so on.



Number of Accounts Needed

Depending on the size of the company, the chart of accounts may include either few dozen accounts or a few thousand accounts. Whereas, if a company is more sophisticated, then the chart of accounts can be either paper-based or computer-based. In conclusion, the standard chart of account is useful for analyzing past transactions and using historical data to forecast future trends.

You can use the following example of chart of accounts to set up the general ledger of most companies. In addition, you may customize your COA to your industry by adding to the Inventory, Revenue and Cost of Goods Sold sections to the sample chart of accounts.

SAMPLE CHART OF ACCOUNTS

Refer to the following sample chart of accounts. Each company’s chart of accounts may look slightly different. But if you are starting from scratch, then the following is great place to start.

1000 ASSETS

1010 CASH Operating Account
1020 CASH Debitors
1030 CASH Petty Cash

1200 RECEIVABLES

1210 A/REC Trade
1220 A/REC Trade Notes Receivable
1230 A/REC Installment Receivables
1240 A/REC Retainage Withheld
1290 A/REC Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts

1300 INVENTORIES

1310 INV – Reserved
1320 INV – Work-in-Progress
1330 INV – Finished Goods
1340 INV – Reserved
1350 INV – Unbilled Cost & Fees
1390 INV – Reserve for Obsolescence

1400 PREPAID EXPENSES & OTHER CURRENT ASSETS

1410 PREPAID – Insurance
1420 PREPAID – Real Estate Taxes
1430 PREPAID – Repairs & Maintenance
1440 PREPAID – Rent
1450 PREPAID – Deposits

1500 PROPERTY PLANT & EQUIPMENT

1510 PPE – Buildings
1520 PPE – Machinery & Equipment
1530 PPE – Vehicles
1540 PPE – Computer Equipment
1550 PPE – Furniture & Fixtures
1560 PPE – Leasehold Improvements

1600 ACCUMULATED DEPRECIATION & AMORTIZATION

1610 ACCUM DEPR Buildings
1620 ACCUM DEPR Machinery & Equipment
1630 ACCUM DEPR Vehicles
1640 ACCUM DEPR Computer Equipment
1650 ACCUM DEPR Furniture & Fixtures
1660 ACCUM DEPR Leasehold Improvements

1700 NON – CURRENT RECEIVABLES

1710 NCA – Notes Receivable
1720 NCA – Installment Receivables
1730 NCA – Retainage Withheld

1800 INTERCOMPANY RECEIVABLES

 

1900 OTHER NON-CURRENT ASSETS

1910 Organization Costs
1920 Patents & Licenses
1930 Intangible Assets – Capitalized Software Costs

2000 LIABILITIES

 

2100 PAYABLES

2110 A/P Trade
2120 A/P Accrued Accounts Payable
2130 A/P Retainage Withheld
2150 Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt
2160 Bank Notes Payable
2170 Construction Loans Payable

2200 ACCRUED COMPENSATION & RELATED ITEMS

2210 Accrued – Payroll
2220 Accrued – Commissions
2230 Accrued – FICA
2240 Accrued – Unemployment Taxes
2250 Accrued – Workmen’s Comp
2260 Accrued – Medical Benefits
2270 Accrued – 401 K Company Match
2275 W/H – FICA
2280 W/H – Medical Benefits
2285 W/H – 401 K Employee Contribution

2300 OTHER ACCRUED EXPENSES

2310 Accrued – Rent
2320 Accrued – Interest
2330 Accrued – Property Taxes
2340 Accrued – Warranty Expense

2500 ACCRUED TAXES

2510 Accrued – Federal Income Taxes
2520 Accrued – State Income Taxes
2530 Accrued – Franchise Taxes
2540 Deferred – FIT Current
2550 Deferred – State Income Taxes

2600 DEFERRED TAXES

2610 D/T – FIT – NON CURRENT
2620 D/T – SIT – NON CURRENT

2700 LONG-TERM DEBT

2710 LTD – Notes Payable
2720 LTD – Mortgages Payable
2730 LTD – Installment Notes Payable

2800 INTERCOMPANY PAYABLES

2900 OTHER NON CURRENT LIABILITIES

3000 OWNERS EQUITIES

3100 Common Stock
3200 Preferred Stock
3300 Paid in Capital
3400 Partners Capital
3500 Member Contributions
3900 Retained Earnings

4000 REVENUE

4010 REVENUE – PRODUCT 1
4020 REVENUE – PRODUCT 2
4030 REVENUE – PRODUCT 3
4040 REVENUE – PRODUCT 4
4600 Interest Income
4700 Other Income
4800 Finance Charge Income
4900 Sales Returns and Allowances
4950 Sales Discounts

5000 COST OF GOODS SOLD

5010 COGS – PRODUCT 1
5020 COGS – PRODUCT 2
5030 COGS – PRODUCT 3
5040 COGS – PRODUCT 4
5700 Freight
5800 Inventory Adjustments
5900 Purchase Returns and Allowances
5950 Reserved

6000 – 7000 OPERATING EXPENSES

6010 Advertising Expense
6050 Amortization Expense
6100 Auto Expense
6150 Bad Debt Expense
6200 Bank Charges
6250 Cash Over and Short
6300 Commission Expense
6350 Depreciation Expense
6400 Employee Benefit Program
6550 Freight Expense
6600 Gifts Expense
6650 Insurance – General
6700 Interest Expense
6750 Professional Fees
6800 License Expense
6850 Maintenance Expense
6900 Meals and Entertainment
6950 Office Expense
7000 Payroll Taxes
7050 Printing
7150 Postage
7200 Rent
7250 Repairs Expense
7300 Salaries Expense
7350 Supplies Expense
7400 Taxes – FIT Expense
7500 Utilities Expense
7900 Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets


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standard chart of accounts

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standard chart of accounts

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

Outsource Definition

See Also:
Administration Expenses

Outsource Definition

The outsource definition is the practice of transferring business activities to an external organization instead of performing the activities internally.

Outsourcing Criteria

Companies may outsource business activities if they feel an external organization can perform the activities better or at a lower cast than if the company were to perform the activities itself. Outsourcing typically involves a contract between the company and the external organization that stipulates the costs, quality standards, and other conditions regarding the performance of the business activity.


Click here to download: The Guide to Outsourcing Your Bookkeeping & Accounting for SMBs


Insourcing

The decision to outsource instead of insource depends on the nature of the business. Typically, companies want to focus on their core business activities and outsource peripheral activities. Value chain analysis may help a company discover which activities to perform internally and which to consider outsourcing.

Activities that are commonly outsourced include bookkeeping, legal services, transportation, security, and other business activities. When deciding whether to outsource an activity or perform the activity internally, it is necessary to consider the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing.

Outsourcing vs Insourcing

It may be advantageous to outsource an activity if doing so is cheaper than performing the activity internally. It may also be useful if the external organization has superior expertise in the activity. Outsourcing also allows a company to focus its attention on its core business activities.

There are also disadvantages to outsourcing. Outsourcing customer service operations may cause customers to feel disaffected when they find out they are not dealing with the company they are trying to reach. Also, if the external organization has access to sensitive information, then there may be a risk of information leaking to competitors or other parties. Outsourcing certain operational activities may cause the company to give up valuable customer data used for marketing purposes. And finally, outsourcing may require the company to incur the costs of monitoring and auditing the performance of the external organization.

Outsourcing Overseas

In today’s global economy, more and more companies are outsourcing business activities to external operations in other countries. Labor and operational costs may be significantly lower than in the company’s home country.

Guide to Outsourcing Your Business's Bookkeeping and Accounting


Before you decide to outsource, determine what your core competencies are. Check out our free Internal Analysis whitepaper to assist your leadership decisions and create the roadmap for your company’s success!

Outsource Definition
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Outsource Definition

Originally posted by Jim Wilkinson on July 24, 2013. 

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